Romania - RO - ROU - ROU - Europe

Last updated: April 18, 2024
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Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Kathleen KAVALEC (since 14 February 2023)

embassy: 4-6, Dr. Liviu Librescu Blvd., District 1, Bucharest, 015118

mailing address: 5260 Bucharest Place, Washington, DC  20521-5260

telephone: [40] (21) 200-3300

FAX: [40] (21) 200-3442

email address and website:

Age structure

0-14 years: 15.63% (male 1,472,449/female 1,391,671)

15-64 years: 62.13% (male 5,689,908/female 5,696,224)

65 years and over: 22.24% (2023 est.) (male 1,682,695/female 2,393,380)
2023 population pyramid
This is the population pyramid for Romania. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Geographic coordinates

46 00 N, 25 00 E

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female

total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2023 est.)


18 (2024)

Natural hazards

earthquakes, most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides

Area - comparative

twice the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Oregon
Area comparison map

twice the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Oregon

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for voluntary service for men and women; all military inductees contract for an initial 5-year term of service, with subsequent successive 3-year terms until age 36; conscription ended in 2006 (2023)


The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia -- for centuries under the control of the Turkish Ottoman Empire -- secured their autonomy through the Treaty of Paris in 1856. They were de facto linked in 1859 and formally united in 1862 under the new name of Romania. The country joined the Allied Powers in World War I and subsequently acquired new territories -- most notably Transylvania -- that more than doubled its size. In 1940, Romania allied with the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR. Three years later, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice. The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a communist "people's republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU, who took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Romania joined NATO in 2004, the EU in 2007, and the Schengen Area for air and sea travel in 2024.

Environment - current issues

soil erosion, degradation, and desertification; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Population below poverty line

21.2% (2021 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 1.7%

highest 10%: 24.2% (2020 est.)

note: % share of income accruing to lowest and highest 10% of population

Exports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, insulated wiring, refined petroleum, electrical control boards, seats (2019)

Exports - partners

Germany 20%, Italy 10%, France 6%, Hungary 5%, Poland 4% (2021)

Administrative divisions

41 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti (Bucharest)*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dambovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Valcea, Vrancea

Agricultural products

maize, wheat, milk, sunflower seeds, potatoes, barley, grapes, sugar beets, rapeseed, plums/sloes

Military and security forces

Romanian Armed Forces (Forțele Armate Române or Armata Română): Land Forces, Naval Forces, Air Force

Ministry of Internal Affairs: General Inspectorate of the Romanian Police, the Romanian Gendarmerie (Jandarmeria Română), the Romanian Border Police, the General Directorate for Internal Protection, and the Directorate General for Anticorruption (2024)


revenues: $72.193 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $83.59 billion (2019 est.)


name: Bucharest

geographic coordinates: 44 26 N, 26 06 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: related to the Romanian word "bucura" that is believed to be of Dacian origin and whose meaning is "to be glad (happy)"; Bucharest's meaning is thus akin to "city of joy"

Imports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, crude petroleum, packaged medicines, insulated wiring, broadcasting equipment (2019)


temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms


225 km


history: several previous; latest adopted 21 November 1991, approved by referendum and effective 8 December 1991

amendments: initiated by the president of Romania through a proposal by the government, by at least one fourth of deputies or senators in Parliament, or by petition of eligible voters representing at least half of Romania’s counties; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by both chambers or – if mediation is required - by three-fourths majority vote in a joint session, followed by approval in a referendum; articles, including those on national sovereignty, form of government, political pluralism, and fundamental rights and freedoms cannot be amended; amended 2003

Exchange rates

lei (RON) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
4.688 (2022 est.)
4.16 (2021 est.)
4.244 (2020 est.)
4.238 (2019 est.)
3.942 (2018 est.)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Klaus Werner IOHANNIS (since 21 December 2014)

head of government: Prime Minister Marcel CIOLACU (since 15 June 2023); Deputy Prime Ministers Sorin GRINDEANU (since 25 November 2021) and Hunor KELEMEN (since 23 December 2020)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 10 November 2019 with a runoff on 24 November 2019 (next to be held in November 2024); prime minister appointed by the president with consent of Parliament

election results:
Klaus IOHANNIS reelected president in second round; percent of vote - Klaus IOHANNIS (PNL) 66.1%, Viorica DANCILA (PSD) 33.9%

2014: Klaus IOHANNIS elected president in second round; percent of vote - Klaus IOHANNIS (PNL) 54.4%, Victor PONTA (PSD) 45.6%

Fiscal year

calendar year

Flag description

three equal vertical bands of cobalt blue (hoist side), chrome yellow, and vermilion red; modeled after the flag of France, the colors are those of the principalities of Walachia (red and yellow) and Moldavia (red and blue), which united in 1862 to form Romania; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed

note: now similar to the flag of Chad, whose blue band is darker; also resembles the flags of Andorra and Moldova

Illicit drugs

a source country for cannabis


9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from the Ottoman Empire; 13 July 1878 (independence recognized by the Treaty of Berlin); 26 March 1881 (kingdom proclaimed); 30 December 1947 (republic proclaimed)


electric machinery and equipment, auto assembly, textiles and footwear, light machinery, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining, mining, timber, construction materials

Judicial branch

highest court(s): High Court of Cassation and Justice (consists of 111 judges organized into civil, penal, commercial, contentious administrative and fiscal business, and joint sections); Supreme Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)

judge selection and term of office: High Court of Cassation and Justice judges appointed by the president upon nomination by the Superior Council of Magistracy, a 19-member body of judges, prosecutors, and law specialists; judges appointed for 6-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court members - 6 elected by Parliament and 3 appointed by the president; members serve 9-year, nonrenewable terms

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; regional tribunals; first instance courts; military and arbitration courts

Land boundaries

total: 2,844 km

border countries (5): Bulgaria 605 km; Hungary 424 km; Moldova 683 km; Serbia 531 km; Ukraine 601 km

Land use

agricultural land: 60.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 39.1% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.9% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 19.7% (2018 est.)

forest: 28.7% (2018 est.)

other: 10.6% (2018 est.)

Legal system

civil law system


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98.9%

male: 99.1%

female: 98.7% (2021)

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

International organization participation

Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

National holiday

Unification Day (unification of Romania and Transylvania), 1 December (1918)


noun: Romanian(s)

adjective: Romanian

Natural resources

petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower

Geography - note

controls the most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine; the Carpathian Mountains dominate the center of the country, while the Danube River forms much of the southern boundary with Serbia and Bulgaria

Economic overview

high-income, service- and industrial-based European economy; EU member but non-euro user until convergence criteria met; sustained growth prior to COVID-19; major FDI recipient; flat taxation structure; digital hub of Eastern Europe


3,726 km gas, 2,451 km oil (2013)

Political parties and leaders

2020 USR-PLUS Alliance [Dan BARNA and Dacian CIOLOS] (dissolved 16 April 2021)
Alliance for the Fatherland or APP [Codrin STEFANESCU]
Alliance for the Unity of Romanians or AUR [George SIMION]
Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party or PNT-CD [Aurelian PAVELESCU]
Civic Hungarian Party [Zsolt BIRO]
Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Hunor KELEMEN]
Ecologist Party of Romania or PER [Danut POP]
Force of the Right or FD [Ludovic ORBAN]
Greater Romania Party or PRM [Victor IOVICI]
Green Party [Marius LAZAR and Lavinia COSMA]
National Liberal Party or PNL [Nicolae CIUCA]
Party of Liberty, Unity, and Solidarity or PLUS [Dacian CIOLOS] (dissolved 16 April 2021)
Popular Movement Party or PMP [Eugen TOMAC]
PRO Romania or PRO [Victor PONTA]
Romanian Nationhood Party or PNR [Ninel PEIA]
Save Romania Union Party or USR [Catalin DRULA]
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Marcel CIOLACU]
Social Liberal Humanist Party or PUSL [Daniel IONASCU] (formerly Humanist Power Party (Social-Liberal) or PPU-SL)
The Right Alternative or AD [Adela MIRZA]
United Romania Party or PRU [Robert BUGA]
We are Renewing the European Project in Romania or REPER [Dacian CIOLOS; Ramona STRUGARIU; Dragos PISLARU]

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Constanta, Midia

river port(s): Braila, Galati (Galatz), Mancanului (Giurgiu), Tulcea (Danube River)


18 years of age; universal

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Romania’s telecom market has undergone several significant changes in recent years; the mobile market is served by network operators that have extensive LTE networks in place, while services based on 5G have been offered under their existing spectrum concessions since 2019; the delayed multi-spectrum auction, expected to be completed later in 2021, will enable the operators to expand 5G network capacity and enable consumers to make far greater use of the technology’s potential; in line with legislation passed in July 2021 the MNOs will have to replace equipment provided by vendors deemed to be a security risk (2021)

domestic: fixed-line teledensity is 13 telephones per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is119 telephones per 100 persons (2021)

international: country code - 40; landing point for the Diamond Link Global submarine cable linking Romania with Georgia; satellite earth stations - 10; digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest (2019)


central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Moldavian Plateau on the east by the Eastern Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps

Government type

semi-presidential republic

Country name

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Romania

local long form: none

local short form: Romania

former: Kingdom of Romania, Romanian People's Republic, Socialist Republic of Romania

etymology: the name derives from the Latin "Romanus" meaning "citizen of Rome" and was used to stress the common ancient heritage of Romania's three main regions - Moldavia, Transylvania, and Wallachia - during their gradual unification between the mid-19th century and early 20th century


Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine

Map references


Irrigated land

4,730 sq km (2020)

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Dan Andrei MURARU (since 15 September 2021)

chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 332-4829; [1] (202) 332-4846

FAX: [1] (202) 232-4748

email address and website:;

Embassy of Romania - Washington, DC (

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New York

Internet country code


Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 77,250 (Ukraine) (as of 24 March 2024)

stateless persons: 297 (2022)

note: 16,085 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015-March 2024)

GDP (official exchange rate)

$300.691 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BBB- (2011)

Moody's rating: Baa3 (2006)

Standard & Poors rating: BBB- (2014)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

Total renewable water resources

212 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 14 years

male: 14 years

female: 15 years (2020)


urban population: 54.7% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: -0.15% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Broadcast media

a mixture of public and private TV stations; there are 7 public TV stations (2 national, 5 regional) using terrestrial broadcasting and 187 private TV stations (out of which 171 offer local coverage) using terrestrial broadcasting, plus 11 public TV stations using satellite broadcasting and 86 private TV stations using satellite broadcasting; state-owned public radio broadcaster operates 4 national networks and regional and local stations, having in total 20 public radio stations by terrestrial broadcasting plus 4 public radio stations by satellite broadcasting; there are 502 operational private radio stations using terrestrial broadcasting and 26 private radio stations using satellite broadcasting

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

National anthem

name: "Desteapta-te romane!" (Wake up, Romanian!)

lyrics/music: Andrei MURESIANU/Anton PANN

note: adopted 1990; the anthem was written during the 1848 Revolution
This is an audio of the National Anthem for Romania. The national anthem is generally a patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.

Major urban areas - population

1.776 million BUCHAREST (capital) (2023)

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Physicians density

2.98 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Hospital bed density

6.9 beds/1,000 population (2017)

National symbol(s)

golden eagle; national colors: blue, yellow, red

Mother's mean age at first birth

27.1 years (2020 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 70% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 7.7% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 22.6% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 1.9% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 41.4% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -43.6% (2017 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 53.7

youth dependency ratio: 24.6

elderly dependency ratio: 29.1

potential support ratio: 3.4 (2021 est.)


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Romania

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Population distribution

urbanization is not particularly high, and a fairly even population distribution can be found throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations; Hungarians, the country's largest minority, have a particularly strong presence in eastern Transylvania

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 8 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 60

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 4,908,235 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 2.71 million (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix


Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 96.9% of population

rural: 76% of population

total: 87.3% of population

unimproved: urban: 3.1% of population

rural: 24% of population

total: 12.7% of population (2020 est.)

Ethnic groups

Romanian 89.3%, Hungarian 6%, Romani 3.4%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.1%, other 0.9% (2021 est.)

note: data represent individuals who declared an ethnic group in the 2021 national census; 13% did not respond; Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 5–11% of Romania's population


Romanian Orthodox 85.3%, Roman Catholic 4.5%, Reformed 3%, Pentecostal 2.5%, other 4.7% (2021 est.)

note: data represent individuals who declared a religion in the 2021 national census; 13.9% did not respond


Romanian (official) 91.6%, Hungarian 6.3%, Romani 1.2%, other 0.7% (2021 est.)

note: data represent individuals who declared a maternal language in the 2021 national census; 13.1% did not respond

major-language sample(s):
Cartea informativa a lumii, sursa indispensabila pentru informatii de baza. (Romanian)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.
Romanian audio sample

Imports - partners

Germany 19%, Italy 9%, Hungary 7%, Poland 6%, China 6% (2021)

Disputes - international

Romania-Bulgaria: none identified

Romania-Hungary: none identified

Romania-Moldova: none identified

Romania-Serbia: none identified

Romania-Ukraine: the International Court of Justice ruled largely in favor of Romania in its dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; in 2007, Romania opposed Ukraine's construction of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea, arguing that it runs through a unique ecological area, the Danube Delta


highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m

lowest point: Black Sea 0 m

mean elevation: 414 m

Contraceptive prevalence rate


Current health expenditure

6.3% of GDP (2020)

Military - note

the Romanian Armed Forces are responsible for territorial defense, fulfilling Romania’s commitments to European security, and contributing to multinational peacekeeping operations; the military has a variety of concerns, including cyber attacks and terrorism, but its primary focus is Russian aggression against neighboring Ukraine and Russia's activities in the Black Sea and Romania’s other eastern neighbor, Moldova

Romania joined NATO in 2004, and the Alliance forms a key pillar of the country’s defense policy; it hosts a NATO multinational divisional headquarters (Multinational Division Southeast) and a French-led ground force battlegroup as part of NATO's Enhanced Forward Presence initiative in the southeastern part of the Alliance, which came about in response to Russia’s 2022 invasion of Ukraine; NATO allies have also sent detachments of fighters to augment the Romanian Air Force since 2014 because of aggressive Russian activity in the Black Sea region; the Romanian military trains regularly with NATO and its member states and participates in NATO- and EU-led multinational missions in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, and Poland

the military is an all-volunteer force equipped largely with Soviet-era or other aging weapons systems, although since joining NATO it has embarked on an effort to acquire more modern, NATO-compatible weapons systems, such as armored vehicles, combat aircraft, and naval vessels; the main combat formations of the Land Forces are two combined arms infantry divisions, each comprised of three or four mechanized and mountain infantry brigades, plus artillery, reconnaissance, and other combat support forces; the Army also has a tactical missile brigade; the military’s special operations forces were consolidated into a special operations command in 2018

the Romanian Navy operates on the Black Sea and the Danube River; the Black Sea fleet command has a small force of frigates and corvettes organized into flotillas and divisions, as well as divisions of mine warfare vessels, naval missiles, and coastal defense; the Danube River flotilla operates gunboats and has a marine infantry regiment 

the Air Force had approximately 400 Soviet-made combat aircraft when Romania was a member of the Warsaw Pact, but by the 2020s the number was down to a few dozen that were being replaced by secondhand US-origin F-16 fighter aircraft acquired from NATO partners; in 2023, Romania retired the last of its Soviet-era fighters and signed a contract to acquire about 30 additional F-16s from Norway (2023)

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 75,000 active-duty military personnel (58,000 Land Forces; 7,000 Naval Forces; 10,000 Air Force) (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the military's inventory includes a considerable amount of Soviet-era and older domestically produced weapons systems, although in recent years it has launched an effort to acquire more Western-origin equipment from European countries and the US, including aircraft and armored vehicles (2023)

Military deployments

up to 120 Poland (NATO) (2023)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 1.09 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 3.9 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 1.43 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 4.895 million tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 277,547 tons (2015 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 5.7% (2015 est.)

Average household expenditures

on food: 27.3% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 5.7% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 13.3 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 69.26 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 27.62 megatons (2020 est.)

Terrorist group(s)

Terrorist group(s): Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS)

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Dunărea (Danube) river mouth (shared with Germany [s], Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Moldova, and Ukraine) - 2,888 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 9 (7 cultural, 2 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Danube Delta (n); Churches of Moldavia (c); Monastery of Horezu (c); Villages with Fortified Churches in Transylvania (c); Dacian Fortresses of the Orastie Mountains (c); Historic Center of Sighişoara (c); Wooden Churches of Maramureş (c); Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians (n); Roșia Montană Mining Landscape (c)


production: 15.002 million metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 16.412 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 2,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 1.384 million metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 291 million metric tons (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 32.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 20.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 3.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 13.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 29.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Natural gas

production: 10,367,941,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

consumption: 11,087,528,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 11.185 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

imports: 2,800,985,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

proven reserves: 105.48 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)


total petroleum production: 74,000 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 222,200 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 1,400 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 161,600 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 600 million barrels (2021 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

0.79 (2023 est.)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

54.8% (2023)


2.88% of GDP (2022 est.)
3.19% of GDP (2021 est.)
3.03% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities

Nuclear energy

Number of operational nuclear reactors: 2 (2023)

Number of nuclear reactors under construction: 0

Net capacity of operational nuclear reactors: 1.3GW (2023)

Percent of total electricity production: 18.5% (2021)

Percent of total energy produced: 12.9% (2021)

Number of nuclear reactors permanently shut down: 0

Space program overview

space program is integrated into the European Space Agency (ESA) and dates back to the 1960s; program is involved in the development and production of a wide range of capabilities and technologies, including satellites, satellite/space launch vehicles (SLVs), remote sensing, human space flight, navigation, telecommunications, and other space-related applications; in addition to the ESA/EU and their member states (particularly Bulgaria, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy), it cooperates with a variety of other space agencies and commercial space entities, including those of Azerbaijan, China, Japan, Russia, and the US; also participates in international programs; has an active space industry sector with over 50 entities involved in space-related activities (2023)

note: further details about the key activities, programs, and milestones of the country’s space program, as well as government spending estimates on the space sector, appear in Appendix S

Space agency/agencies

Romanian Space Agency (Agentia Spatiala Romania, ROSA; established 1991) (2023)


total global geoparks and regional networks: 2

global geoparks and regional networks: Buzău; Haţeg (2023)

Labor force

8.296 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 20.6% (2021 est.)

male: 20.9%

female: 20.1%

Net migration rate

-3.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Median age

total: 45.1 years (2023 est.)

male: 43.6 years

female: 46.5 years

Debt - external

$117.829 billion (2019 est.)
$115.803 billion (2018 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

10 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$55.81 billion (2022 est.)
$51.886 billion (2021 est.)
$52.191 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars


1,731 km (2010) (includes 1,075 km on the Danube River, 524 km on secondary branches, and 132 km on canals)

Refined petroleum products - imports

49,420 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Public debt

55.57% of GDP (2021 est.)
57.11% of GDP (2020 est.)
43.21% of GDP (2019 est.)

note: central government debt as a % of GDP

Total fertility rate

1.63 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Military expenditures

1.6% of GDP (2023 est.)
1.7% of GDP (2022)
1.9% of GDP (2021)
2% of GDP (2020)
1.8% of GDP (2019)

Unemployment rate

5.61% (2022 est.)
5.59% (2021 est.)
5.03% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment


18,326,327 (2023 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-2.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Internet users

total: 15.96 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 84% (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

68.746 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 20.891 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 27.268 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 20.588 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)


total: 238,391 sq km

land: 229,891 sq km

water: 8,500 sq km

Taxes and other revenues

14.96% (of GDP) (2021 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$618.95 billion (2022 est.)
$591.757 billion (2021 est.)
$559.798 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars


total: 85,387 km (2022)


82 (2024)

Infant mortality rate

total: 5.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 5.9 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 5.4 deaths/1,000 live births

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 22.929 million (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 119 (2021 est.)

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

34.6 (2020 est.)

note: index (0-100) of income distribution; higher values represent greater inequality

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

13.8% (2022 est.)
5.05% (2021 est.)
2.63% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

Refined petroleum products - exports

103,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Current account balance

-$27.326 billion (2022 est.)
-$20.627 billion (2021 est.)
-$12.535 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

Real GDP per capita

$32,500 (2022 est.)
$30,900 (2021 est.)
$29,100 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 5,684,782 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 30 (2020 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 28% (2020 est.)

male: 35.9% (2020 est.)

female: 20% (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

22.5% (2016)

Energy consumption per capita

71.736 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Death rate

14.9 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Birth rate

8.6 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)


installed generating capacity: 20.528 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 50,039,421,000 kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 5.459 billion kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 8.252 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 6.501 billion kWh (2019 est.)

Merchant marine

total: 127 (2023)

by type: general cargo 9, oil tanker 7, other 111

Children under the age of 5 years underweight



$149.209 billion (2022 est.)
$132.056 billion (2021 est.)
$103.899 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars


$129.286 billion (2022 est.)
$115.879 billion (2021 est.)
$93.024 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 2.222 million (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 13 (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

232,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 10.96 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 5.33 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 3.38 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 2.25 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 76.3 years (2023 est.)

male: 72.9 years

female: 80 years

Real GDP growth rate

4.6% (2022 est.)
5.71% (2021 est.)
-3.68% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

Industrial production growth rate

3.25% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency


total: 10,628 km (2020) 4,030 km electrified

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 4.2% (2017 est.)

industry: 33.2% (2017 est.)

services: 62.6% (2017 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

0.16% of GDP (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

0.03% of GDP (2018 est.)

Education expenditures

3.7% of GDP (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

-1.01% (2023 est.)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of:
Senate or Senat (136 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies - including 2 seats for diaspora - by party-list, proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
Chamber of Deputies or Camera Deputatilor (330 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies - including 4 seats for diaspora - by party-list, proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

Senate - last held on 6 December 2020 (next to be held in 2024)
Chamber of Deputies - last held on 6 December 2020 (next to be held in 2024)

election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - PSD 29.3%, PNL 25.6%, 2020 USR-PLUS Alliance 15.9%, AUR 9.2%, UDMR 5.9%, other 14.1%; seats by party - PSD 47, PNL 41, 2020 USR-PLUS Alliance 25, AUR 14, UDMR 9; composition - men 111, women 24, percentage women 17.8%

Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PSD 28.9%, PNL 25.2%, 2020 USR-PLUS Alliance 15.4%, AUR 9.1%, UDMR 5.7%, other 15.7%; seats by party - PSD 110, PNL 93, 2020 USR-PLUS Alliance 55, AUR 33, UDMR 21, other 18; composition - men 265, women 63, percentage women 19.2%; total Parliament percentage women 18.8%