Nigeria - NG - NGA - NGR - Africa

Last updated: April 17, 2024
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Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Chargé d'Affaires David GREENE (since 31 March 2023)

embassy: Plot 1075 Diplomatic Drive, Central District Area, Abuja

mailing address: 8320 Abuja Place, Washington DC  20521-8320

telephone: [234] (9) 461-4000

FAX: [234] (9) 461-4036

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: Lagos

Age structure

0-14 years: 40.69% (male 47,978,838/female 45,940,446)

15-64 years: 55.95% (male 64,923,147/female 64,241,948)

65 years and over: 3.36% (2023 est.) (male 3,635,334/female 4,123,030)
2023 population pyramid
This is the population pyramid for Nigeria. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Geographic coordinates

10 00 N, 8 00 E

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female

total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2023 est.)


15 (2024)

Natural hazards

periodic droughts; flooding

Area - comparative

about six times the size of Georgia; slightly more than twice the size of California
Area comparison map

about six times the size of Georgia; slightly more than twice the size of California

Military service age and obligation

18-26 years of age for voluntary military service for men and women; no conscription (2023)


In ancient and pre-colonial times, the area of present-day Nigeria was occupied by a great diversity of ethnic groups with different languages and traditions. These included large Islamic kingdoms such as Borno, Kano, and the Sokoto Caliphate dominating the north, the Benin and Oyo Empires that controlled much of modern western Nigeria, and more decentralized political entities and city states in the south and southeast. In 1914, the British amalgamated their separately administered northern and southern territories into a Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria. Nigeria achieved independence in from Britain in 1960 and transitioned to a federal republic with three constituent states in 1963 under President Nnamdi AZIKIWE. This structure served to enflame regional and ethnic tension, contributing to a bloody coup led by predominately southeastern military officers in 1966 and a countercoup later that year masterminded by northern officers. In the aftermath of this tension, the governor of Nigeria’s Eastern Region, centered on the southeast, declared the region independent as the Republic of Biafra. The ensuring civil war (1967-1970), resulted in more than a million deaths, many from starvation. While the war forged a stronger Nigerian state and national identity, it contributed to long-lasting mistrust of the southeast’s predominantly Igbo population. Wartime military leader Yakubu GOWON ruled until a bloodless coup by frustrated junior officers in 1975. This generation of officers, including Olusegun OBASANJO, Ibrahim BABANGIDA, and Muhammadu BUHARI, who would all later serve as president, continue to exert significant influence in Nigeria to the present day. Military rule predominated until the first durable transition to civilian government and adoption of a new constitution in 1999. The general elections of 2007 marked the first civilian-to-civilian transfer of power in the country's history. National and state elections in 2011 and 2015 were generally regarded as credible. The 2015 election was also heralded for the fact that the then-umbrella opposition party, the All Progressives Congress, defeated the long-ruling (since 1999) People's Democratic Party, and assumed the presidency, marking the first peaceful transfer of power from one party to another. Presidential and legislative elections in 2019 and 2023 were deemed broadly free and fair despite voting irregularities, intimidation, and violence. The government of Africa's most populous nation continues to face the daunting task of institutionalizing democracy and reforming a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through decades of corruption and mismanagement. In addition, Nigeria faces increasing violence from Islamic terrorism, largely in the northeast, large scale criminal banditry, secessionist violence in the southeast, and competition over land and resources nationwide.

Environment - current issues

serious overpopulation and rapid urbanization have led to numerous environmental problems; urban air and water pollution; rapid deforestation; soil degradation; loss of arable land; oil pollution - water, air, and soil have suffered serious damage from oil spills

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Tropical Timber 2006

Population below poverty line

40.1% (2018 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.9%

highest 10%: 26.7% (2018 est.)

note: % share of income accruing to lowest and highest 10% of population

Exports - commodities

crude petroleum, natural gas, scrap vessels, cocoa beans, refined petroleum (2021)

Exports - partners

India 16%, Spain 12%, United States 6%, France 6%, China 5% (2021)

Administrative divisions

36 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Federal Capital Territory*, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Nasarawa, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, Zamfara

Agricultural products

cassava, yams, maize, oil palm fruit, rice, vegetables, sorghum, groundnuts, fruit, sweet potatoes

Military and security forces

Armed Forces of Nigeria (AFN): Army, Navy (includes Coast Guard), Air Force

Ministry of Interior: Nigeria Security and Civil Defense Corps (NSCDC); Ministry of Police Affairs: Nigeria Police Force (NPF) (2024)

note 1: the NSCDC is a paramilitary agency commissioned to assist the military in the management of threats to internal security, including attacks and natural disasters

note 2: the Office of the National Security Advisor is responsible for coordinating all security and enforcement agencies, including the Department of State Security (DSS), the NSCDC, the Ministry of Justice, and the NPF; border security responsibilities are shared among the NPF, the DSS, the NSCDC, Nigeria Customs Service, Immigration Service, and the AFN

note 3: some states have created local security forces akin to neighborhood watches in response to increased violence, insecurity, and criminality that have exceeded the response capacity of federal government security forces but as of January 2024, official security forces remained the constitutional perogative of the federal government


revenues: $37.298 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $59.868 billion (2019 est.)


name: Abuja

geographic coordinates: 9 05 N, 7 32 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: Abuja is a planned capital city, it replaced Lagos in 1991; situated in the center of the country, Abuja takes its name from a nearby town, now renamed Suleja

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, cars, wheat, laboratory glassware, packaged medicines (2019)


varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north


853 km


history: several previous; latest adopted 5 May 1999, effective 29 May 1999

amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of both houses and approval by the Houses of Assembly of at least two thirds of the states; amendments to constitutional articles on the creation of a new state, fundamental constitutional rights, or constitution-amending procedures requires at least four-fifths majority vote by both houses of the National Assembly and approval by the Houses of Assembly in at least two thirds of the states; passage of amendments limited to the creation of a new state require at least two-thirds majority vote by the proposing National Assembly house and approval by the Houses of Assembly in two thirds of the states; amended several times, last in 2018

Exchange rates

nairas (NGN) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
425.979 (2022 est.)
401.152 (2021 est.)
358.811 (2020 est.)
306.921 (2019 est.)
306.084 (2018 est.)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Bola Ahmed Adekunle TINUBU (since 29 May 2023); Vice President Kashim SHETTIMA (since 29 May 2023); note - the president is chief of state, head of government, and commander-in-chief of the armed forces

head of government: President Bola Ahmed Adekunle TINUBU (since 29 May 2023); Vice President Kashim SHETTIMA (since 29 May 2023)

cabinet: Federal Executive Council appointed by the president but constrained constitutionally to include at least one member from each of the 36 states

elections/appointments: president directly elected by qualified majority popular vote and at least 25% of the votes cast in 24 of Nigeria's 36 states; president elected for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 25 February 2023 (next to be held on 27 February 2027)

election results:
2023: Bola Ahmed Adekunle TINUBU elected president; percent of vote - Bola Ahmed Adekunle TINUBU (APC) 36.6%, Atiku ABUBAKAR (PDP) 29.1%, Peter OBI (LP) 25.4%, Rabiu KWANKWASO (NNPP) 6.4%, other 2.5%

2019: Muhammadu BUHARI elected president; percent of vote - Muhammadu BUHARI (APC) 53%, Atiku ABUBAKAR (PDP) 39%, other 8%


Fiscal year

calendar year

Flag description

three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green; the color green represents the forests and abundant natural wealth of the country, white stands for peace and unity

Illicit drugs

Nigeria is a major hub for transnational drug trafficking networks entrenched throughout the world and supplying cocaine to Asia and Europe, heroin to Europe and North America, and methamphetamine to South Africa, Southeast Asia, Australia, and New Zealand; also exporting massive quantities of opioids such as tramadol and captagon along with crack cocaine; a major source of precursor or essential chemicals used in the production of illicit narcotics



1 October 1960 (from the UK)


crude oil, coal, tin, columbite; rubber products, wood; hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 15 justices)

judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president upon the recommendation of the National Judicial Council, a 23-member independent body of federal and state judicial officials; judge appointments confirmed by the Senate; judges serve until age 70

subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; Federal High Court; High Court of the Federal Capital Territory; Sharia Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory; Customary Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory; state court system similar in structure to federal system

Land boundaries

total: 4,477 km

border countries (4): Benin 809 km; Cameroon 1,975 km; Chad 85 km; Niger 1,608 km

Land use

agricultural land: 78% (2018 est.)

arable land: 37.3% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 7.4% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 33.3% (2018 est.)

forest: 9.5% (2018 est.)

other: 12.5% (2018 est.)

Legal system

mixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law (in 12 northern states), and traditional law


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 62%

male: 71.3%

female: 52.7% (2018)

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

International organization participation


National holiday

Independence Day (National Day), 1 October (1960)


noun: Nigerian(s)

adjective: Nigerian

Natural resources

natural gas, petroleum, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, niobium, lead, zinc, arable land

Geography - note

the Niger River enters the country in the northwest and flows southward through tropical rain forests and swamps to its delta in the Gulf of Guinea

Economic overview

largest African market economy; enormous but mostly lower middle income labor force; major oil exporter; key telecommunications and finance industries; susceptible to energy prices; regional leader in critical infrastructure; primarily agrarian employment


124 km condensate, 4,045 km gas, 164 km liquid petroleum gas, 4,441 km oil, 3,940 km refined products (2013)

Political parties and leaders

Accord Party or ACC [Christopher IMUMOLEN]
Africa Democratic Congress or ADC [Dumebi KACHIKWU] 
All Progressives Congress or APC [Bola Ahmed TINUBU]
All Progressives Grand Alliance or APGA [Peter UMEADI]
Labor Party or LP [Peter OBI] 
New Nigeria People’s Party or NNPP [Rabiu KWANKWASO]
Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Atiku ABUBAKAR]
Young Progressive Party or YPP [Prince Malik ADO-IBRAHIM]

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Bonny Inshore Terminal, Calabar, Lagos

oil terminal(s): Bonny Terminal, Brass Terminal, Escravos Terminal, Forcados Terminal, Pennington Terminal, Qua Iboe Terminal

LNG terminal(s) (export): Bonny Island


18 years of age; universal

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: one of the larger telecom markets in Africa subject to sporadic access to electricity and vandalism of infrastructure; most Internet connections are via mobile networks; market competition with affordable access; LTE technologies available but GSM is dominant; mobile penetration high due to use of multiple SIM cards and phones; government committed to expanding broadband penetration; operators to deploy fiber optic cable in six geopolitical zones and Lagos; operators invested in base stations to deplete network congestion; submarine cable break in 2020 slowed speeds and interrupted connectivity; Nigeria concluded its first 5G spectrum auction in 2021 and granted licenses to two firms; construction of 5G infrastructure has not yet been completed (2022)

domestic: fixed-line subscribership remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership is 91 per 100 persons (2021)

international: country code - 234; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC, NCSCS,  MainOne, Glo-1 & 2, ACE, and Equiano fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and South and West Africa; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2019)


southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in north

Government type

federal presidential republic

Country name

conventional long form: Federal Republic of Nigeria

conventional short form: Nigeria

etymology: named for the Niger River that flows through the west of the country to the Atlantic Ocean; from a native term "Ni Gir" meaning "River Gir"


Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon

Map references


Irrigated land

2,930 sq km (2012)

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Chargé d'Affaires Mobolaji Sakirat OGUNDERO (since 1 November 2023)

chancery: 3519 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 800-7201 (ext. 100)

FAX: [1] (202) 362-6541

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, New York

Internet country code


Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2023)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and sexually transmitted diseases: hepatitis B (2024)

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

animal contact diseases: rabies

respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis

aerosolized dust or soil contact diseases: Lassa fever

note 1: on 4 May 2022, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued a Travel Health Notice for a Yellow Fever outbreak in Nigeria; a large, ongoing outbreak of yellow fever in Nigeria began in September 2017; the outbreak is now spread throughout the country with the Nigerian Ministry of Health reporting cases of the disease in multiple states (Bauchi, Benue, Delta, Ebonyi, and Enugu); the CDC recommends travelers going to Nigeria should receive vaccination against yellow fever at least 10 days before travel and should take steps to prevent mosquito bites while there; those never vaccinated against yellow fever should avoid travel to Nigeria during the outbreak (see attached map)

note 2: on 31 August 2023, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a Travel Alert for polio in Africa; Nigeria is currently considered a high risk to travelers for circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV); vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) is a strain of the weakened poliovirus that was initially included in oral polio vaccine (OPV) and that has changed over time and behaves more like the wild or naturally occurring virus; this means it can be spread more easily to people who are unvaccinated against polio and who come in contact with the stool or respiratory secretions, such as from a sneeze, of an “infected” person who received oral polio vaccine; the CDC recommends that before any international travel, anyone unvaccinated, incompletely vaccinated, or with an unknown polio vaccination status should complete the routine polio vaccine series; before travel to any high-risk destination, the CDC recommends that adults who previously completed the full, routine polio vaccine series receive a single, lifetime booster dose of polio vaccine

note 3: on 20 September 2023, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention updated a Travel Health Alert for a diphtheria outbreak in several states in Nigeria; vaccination against diphtheria is essential to protect against disease; if you are traveling to an affected area, you should be up to date with your diphtheria vaccines; before travel, discuss the need for a booster dose with your healthcare professional; diphtheria is a serious infection caused by strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae bacteria that make a toxin from which people get very sick; diphtheria bacteria spread from person to person through respiratory droplets like from coughing or sneezing; people can also get sick from touching open sores or ulcers of people sick with diphtheria (see attached map)
note 1: The Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) is reporting yellow fever outbreaks in multiple states (Bauchi, Benue, Delta, Ebonyi, and Enugu). Unless vaccinated, travelers should not visit these areas. Yellow fever is caused by a virus transmitted through bites of infected mosquitoes. Travelers to Nigeria should take steps to prevent yellow fever by getting vaccinated at least 10 days before travel and taking steps to prevent mosquito bites. Map courtesy of CDC.
note 1: The Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) is reporting yellow fever outbreaks in multiple states (Bauchi, Benue, Delta, Ebonyi, and Enugu). Unless vaccinated, travelers should not visit these areas. Yellow fever is caused by a virus transmitted through bites of infected mosquitoes. Travelers to Nigeria should take steps to prevent yellow fever by getting vaccinated at least 10 days before travel and taking steps to prevent mosquito bites. Map courtesy of CDC.
note 3: There is an outbreak of diphtheria in several states in Nigeria. Vaccination against diphtheria is essential to protect against disease. If you are traveling to an affected area, you should be up to date with your diphtheria vaccines. Map courtesy of CDC.
note 3: There is an outbreak of diphtheria in several states in Nigeria. Vaccination against diphtheria is essential to protect against disease. If you are traveling to an affected area, you should be up to date with your diphtheria vaccines. Map courtesy of CDC.

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 89,045 (Cameroon) (2023)

IDPs: 3.09 million (northeast Nigeria; Boko Haram attacks and counterinsurgency efforts in northern Nigeria; communal violence between Christians and Muslims in the middle belt region, political violence; flooding; forced evictions; cattle rustling; competition for resources) (2024)

GDP (official exchange rate)

$472.625 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: B (2020)

Moody's rating: B2 (2017)

Standard & Poors rating: B- (2020)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

Total renewable water resources

286.2 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)


urban population: 54.3% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 3.92% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Broadcast media

nearly 70 federal government-controlled national and regional TV stations; all 36 states operate TV stations; several private TV stations operational; cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; network of federal government-controlled national, regional, and state radio stations; roughly 40 state government-owned radio stations typically carry their own programs except for news broadcasts; about 20 private radio stations; transmissions of international broadcasters are available; digital broadcasting migration process completed in three states in 2018 (2019)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 95.3% of population

rural: 68.8% of population

total: 82.6% of population

unimproved: urban: 4.7% of population

rural: 31.2% of population

total: 17.4% of population (2020 est.)

National anthem

name: "Arise Oh Compatriots, Nigeria's Call Obey"

lyrics/music: John A. ILECHUKWU, Eme Etim AKPAN, B.A. OGUNNAIKE, Sotu OMOIGUI and P.O. ADERIBIGBE/Benedict Elide ODIASE

note: adopted 1978; lyrics are a mixture of the five top entries in a national contest
This is an audio of the National Anthem for Nigeria. The national anthem is generally a patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.

Major urban areas - population

15.946 million Lagos, 4.348 million Kano, 3.875 million Ibadan, 3.840 million ABUJA (capital), 3.480 million Port Harcourt, 1.905 million Benin City (2023)

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Physicians density

0.38 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

National symbol(s)

eagle; national colors: green, white

Mother's mean age at first birth

20.4 years (2018 est.)

note: data represents median age at first birth among women 25-49

Demographic profile

Nigeria’s population is projected to grow from more than 186 million people in 2016 to 392 million in 2050, becoming the world’s fourth most populous country. Nigeria’s sustained high population growth rate will continue for the foreseeable future because of population momentum and its high birth rate. Abuja has not successfully implemented family planning programs to reduce and space births because of a lack of political will, government financing, and the availability and affordability of services and products, as well as a cultural preference for large families. Increased educational attainment, especially among women, and improvements in health care are needed to encourage and to better enable parents to opt for smaller families.

Nigeria needs to harness the potential of its burgeoning youth population in order to boost economic development, reduce widespread poverty, and channel large numbers of unemployed youth into productive activities and away from ongoing religious and ethnic violence. While most movement of Nigerians is internal, significant emigration regionally and to the West provides an outlet for Nigerians looking for economic opportunities, seeking asylum, and increasingly pursuing higher education. Immigration largely of West Africans continues to be insufficient to offset emigration and the loss of highly skilled workers. Nigeria also is a major source, transit, and destination country for forced labor and sex trafficking.

Contraceptive prevalence rate

16.6% (2018)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 80% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 5.8% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 14.8% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.7% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 11.9% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -13.2% (2017 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 86

youth dependency ratio: 80.6

elderly dependency ratio: 5.5

potential support ratio: 18 (2021 est.)


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Nigeria

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years

Population distribution

largest population of any African nation; significant population clusters are scattered throughout the country, with the highest density areas being in the south and southwest as shown in this population distribution map

Electricity access

population without electricity: 66 million (2020)

electrification - total population: 59.6% (2021)

electrification - urban areas: 89.2% (2021)

electrification - rural areas: 26.3% (2021)

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 13 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 104

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 8,169,192 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 19.42 million (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix


Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 81.6% of population

rural: 41.4% of population

total: 62.3% of population

unimproved: urban: 18.4% of population

rural: 58.6% of population

total: 37.7% of population (2020 est.)

Ethnic groups

Hausa 30%, Yoruba 15.5%, Igbo (Ibo) 15.2%, Fulani 6%, Tiv 2.4%, Kanuri/Beriberi 2.4%, Ibibio 1.8%, Ijaw/Izon 1.8%, other 24.9% (2018 est.)

note: Nigeria, Africa's most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups


Muslim 53.5%, Roman Catholic 10.6%, other Christian 35.3%, other 0.6% (2018 est.)


English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani, over 500 additional indigenous languages

Imports - partners

China 30%, Netherlands 11%, United States 6%, Belgium 5% (2019)

Disputes - international

Nigeria-Benin: none identified

Nigeria-Cameroon: Joint Border Commission with Cameroon reviewed 2002 ICJ ruling on the entire boundary and bilaterally resolved differences, including June 2006 Greentree Agreement that immediately ceded sovereignty of the Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroon with a phaseout of Nigerian control within two years while resolving patriation issues; demarcation of the Bakassi Peninsula and adjoining border areas should be finalized in 2022; as Lake Chad’s evaporation exposed dry land, only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries

Nigeria-Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea: the ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but imprecisely defined coordinates in the ICJ decision and a sovereignty dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River all contribute to the delay in implementation

Nigeria-Niger: none identified


highest point: Chappal Waddi 2,419 m

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

mean elevation: 380 m

Current health expenditure

3.4% of GDP (2020)

Military - note

the Nigerian military is sub-Saharan Africa’s largest and regarded as one of its most capable forces; the Army is organized into eight divisions comprised of a diverse mix of more than 20 combat brigades, including airborne infantry, amphibious infantry, armor, artillery, light infantry, mechanized and motorized infantry, and special operations forces; there is also a presidential guard brigade; the Army typically organizes into battalion- and brigade-sized task forces for operations; the Air Force has a few squadrons of fighters, ground attack fighters, armed UAVs, and attack helicopter squadrons primarily for supporting the Army

the Army and Air Force are focused largely on internal security and face a number of challenges that have stretched their resources; the Army is deployed in all 36 of the country's states; in the northeast, it is conducting counterinsurgency/counterterrorist operations against the Boko Haram (BH) and Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham in West Africa (ISIS-WA) terrorist groups, where it has deployed as many as 70,000 troops at times and jihadist-related violence has killed an estimated 35-40,000 people, mostly civilians, since 2009; in the northwest, it faces growing threats from criminal gangs--locally referred to as bandits--and violence associated with long-standing farmer-herder conflicts, as well as BH and ISIS-WA terrorists; bandits in the northwestern Nigeria are estimated to number in the low 10,000s and violence there has killed more than 10,000 people since the mid-2010s; the military also continues to protect the oil industry in the Niger Delta region against militants and criminal activity, although the levels of violence there have decreased in recent years; since 2021, additional troops and security forces have been deployed to eastern Nigeria to quell renewed agitation for a state of Biafra (Biafra seceded from Nigeria in the late 1960s, sparking a civil war that caused more than 1 million deaths)

meanwhile, the Navy is focused on security in the Gulf of Guinea; since 2016, it has developed a maritime strategy, boosted naval training and its naval presence in the Gulf, increased participation in regional maritime security efforts, and acquired a number of new naval platforms, including offshore and coastal patrol craft, fast attack boats, and air assets; its principal surface ships currently include a frigate and a few corvettes or offshore patrol ships

the Nigerian military traces its origins to the Nigeria Regiment of the West African Frontier Force (WAFF), a multi-regiment force formed by the British colonial office in 1900 to garrison the West African colonies of Nigeria (Lagos and the protectorates of Northern and Southern Nigeria), Gold Coast, Sierra Leone, and Gambia; the WAFF served with distinction in both East and West Africa during World War I; in 1928, it received royal recognition and was re-named the Royal West African Frontier Force (RWAFF); the RWAFF went on to serve in World War II as part of the British 81st and 82nd (West African) divisions in the East Africa and Burma campaigns; in 1956, the Nigeria Regiment of the RWAFF was renamed the Nigerian Military Forces (NMF) and in 1958, the colonial government of Nigeria took over control of the NMF from the British War Office; the Nigerian Armed Forces were established following independence in 1960 (2023)

Military and security service personnel strengths

information varies; approximately 135,000 active-duty armed forces personnel (100,000 Army; 20,000 Navy/Coast Guard; 15,000 Air Force); approximately 80,000 Security and Civil Defense Corps; approximately 370,000 police (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the military's inventory consists of a wide variety of imported weapons systems of Chinese, European, Middle Eastern, Russian (including Soviet-era), and US origin; the military is undergoing a considerable modernization program, and in recent years has received equipment from nearly 20 countries with China and Russia as the leading suppliers; Nigeria is also developing a defense-industry capacity, including small arms, armored personnel vehicles, and small-scale naval production (2023)

Military deployments

190 Sudan/South Sudan (UNISFA) (2024)

note: Nigeria has committed an Army combat brigade (approximately 3,000 troops) to the Multinational Joint Task Force (MNJTF), a regional counter-terrorism force comprised of troops from Benin, Cameroon, Chad, and Niger; MNJTF conducts operations against Boko Haram and other terrorist groups operating in the general area of the Lake Chad Basin and along Nigeria's northeast border; national MNJTF troop contingents are deployed within their own country territories, although cross‐border operations are conducted periodically

Terrorist group(s)

Terrorist group(s): Boko Haram; Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham – West Africa; Jama’atu Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis-Sudan (Ansaru)

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Food insecurity

widespread lack of access: due to persistent civil conflict in the northern areas, floods, high food prices, and an economic slowdown - about 25.3 million people are projected to face acute food insecurity during the June to August 2023 lean season; this would be a significant deterioration compared to last year, when 19.45 million people were estimated to be acutely food insecure; acute food insecurity is mostly driven by the deterioration of security conditions and conflicts in northern states, which have led to the displacement of about 3.17 million people as of March 2022 (the latest data available) and are constraining farmers’ access to their lands; widespread flooding in 2022, affecting about 4.5 million people across the country, has further compounded conditions, particularly in areas already facing high levels of insecurity; high food prices and the expected slowdown in economic growth in 2023 are additional drivers of acute food insecurity (2023)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 5 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 1.97 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 5.51 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 27,614,830 tons (2009 est.)

Average household expenditures

on food: 59% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 1% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 55.64 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 120.37 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 143.99 megatons (2020 est.)

Major aquifers

Lake Chad Basin, Lullemeden-Irhazer Aquifer System

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Niger (2,261,741 sq km)
Internal (endorheic basin) drainage: Lake Chad (2,497,738 sq km)

Major lakes (area sq km)

fresh water lake(s): Lake Chad (endorheic lake shared with Niger, Chad, and Cameroon) - 10,360-25,900 sq km
note - area varies by season and year to year

Major rivers (by length in km)

Niger river mouth (shared with Guinea [s], Mali, Benin, and Niger) - 4,200 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 2 (both cultural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Sukur Cultural Landscape; Osun-Osogbo Sacred Grove

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 12.3%

women married by age 18: 30.3%

men married by age 18: 1.6% (2021 est.)

note: due to prolonged insecurity concerns, some parts of states, including Borno state, were not sampled


production: 44,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 85,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 12,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 77,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 344 million metric tons (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 78.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 21.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Natural gas

production: 46,296,835,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

consumption: 18,787,602,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 27,509,177,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 5,760,883,000,000 cubic meters (2021 est.)


total petroleum production: 1,646,900 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 483,100 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 1,889,100 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 36.89 billion barrels (2021 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

2.22 (2023 est.)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

66.2% (2023 est.)


4.26% of GDP (2022 est.)
4.42% of GDP (2021 est.)
3.98% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities

Space program overview

has a formal national space program, which is one of the largest in Africa; focused on acquiring satellites for agricultural, environmental, meteorology, mining and disaster monitoring, socio-economic development, and security purposes; designs, builds (mostly with foreign assistance), and operates satellites; processes overhead imagery data for analysis and sharing; developing additional capabilities in satellite and satellite payload production, including remote sensing (RS) technologies; researching rockets and rocket propulsion systems with goal of launching domestically produced satellites into space from a Nigerian spaceport by 2030; has relations and/or cooperation agreements with a variety of foreign space agencies and industries, including those of Algeria, Bangladesh, Belarus, China, Ghana, Japan, Kenya, Mongolia, South Africa, Thailand, Turkey, the UK, the US, and Vietnam; has a government-owned satellite company and a small commercial aerospace sector (2023)

note: further details about the key activities, programs, and milestones of the country’s space program, as well as government spending estimates on the space sector, appear in Appendix S

Space agency/agencies

National Space Research and Development Agency (NARSDA; established 1999); NARSDA originated from the National Centre for Remote Sensing and National Committee on Space Applications (both established in 1987), and the Directorate of Science (established 1993); Defense Space Administration (DSA; established 2014) (2023)

Labor force

73.389 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 19.6% (2021 est.)

male: 19.8% NA

female: 19.4% NA

Net migration rate

-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Median age

total: 19.2 years (2023 est.)

male: 18.9 years

female: 19.4 years

Debt - external

$26.847 billion (2019 est.)
$22.755 billion (2018 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

1,047 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$35.564 billion (2022 est.)
$40.476 billion (2021 est.)
$36.73 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars


8,600 km (2011) (Niger and Benue Rivers and smaller rivers and creeks)

Refined petroleum products - imports

223,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Public debt

21.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
19.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

Total fertility rate

4.57 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Military expenditures

0.6% of GDP (2022 est.)
0.7% of GDP (2021 est.)
0.6% of GDP (2020 est.)
0.5% of GDP (2019 est.)
0.5% of GDP (2018 est.)

Unemployment rate

3.83% (2022 est.)
5.26% (2021 est.)
5.63% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment


230,842,743 (2023 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-1.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Internet users

total: 115.5 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 55% (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

104.494 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 231,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 67.406 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 36.856 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)


total: 923,768 sq km

land: 910,768 sq km

water: 13,000 sq km

Taxes and other revenues

3.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$1.085 trillion (2022 est.)
$1.05 trillion (2021 est.)
$1.014 trillion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars


total: 195,000 km

paved: 60,000 km

unpaved: 135,000 km (2019)


47 (2024)

Infant mortality rate

total: 55.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 60.4 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 49.6 deaths/1,000 live births

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 195,128,265 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 91 (2021 est.)

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

35.1 (2018 est.)

note: index (0-100) of income distribution; higher values represent greater inequality

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

18.85% (2022 est.)
16.95% (2021 est.)
13.25% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

Refined petroleum products - exports

2,332 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Current account balance

$1.019 billion (2022 est.)
-$3.254 billion (2021 est.)
-$15.986 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

Real GDP per capita

$5,000 (2022 est.)
$4,900 (2021 est.)
$4,900 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 65,313 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 0.03 (2020 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 3.7% (2020 est.)

male: 6.9% (2020 est.)

female: 0.5% (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

8.9% (2016)

Energy consumption per capita

8.466 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Death rate

8.5 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Birth rate

34 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)


installed generating capacity: 11.691 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 24,611,480,000 kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

imports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 4.713 billion kWh (2019 est.)

Merchant marine

total: 928 (2023)

by type: general cargo 23, oil tanker 128, other 777

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

18.4% (2019/20)


$77.049 billion (2022 est.)
$67.478 billion (2021 est.)
$72.178 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars


$69.091 billion (2022 est.)
$50.856 billion (2021 est.)
$39.937 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 96,996 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: (2021 est.) less than 1

Refined petroleum products - production

35,010 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 4.49 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 0.73 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.09 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.4 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 3.27 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 61.8 years (2023 est.)

male: 59.9 years

female: 63.8 years

Real GDP growth rate

3.25% (2022 est.)
3.65% (2021 est.)
-1.79% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

Industrial production growth rate

-4.62% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency


total: 3,798 km (2014)

standard gauge: 293 km (2014) 1.435-m gauge

narrow gauge: 3,505 km (2014) 1.067-m gauge

note: as of the end of 2018, there were only six operational locomotives in Nigeria primarily used for passenger service; the majority of the rail lines are in a severe state of disrepair and need to be replaced

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 21.1% (2016 est.)

industry: 22.5% (2016 est.)

services: 56.4% (2017 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

1.02% of GDP (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Education expenditures

0.5% of GDP (2013)

Population growth rate

2.53% (2023 est.)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral National Assembly consists of:
Senate (109 seats - 3 each for the 36 states and 1 for Abuja-Federal Capital Territory; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms)
House of Representatives (360 seats statutory, 258 current; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms)

Senate - last held on 25 February 2023 (next to be held in February 2027)
House of Representatives - last held on 25 February 2023 (next to be held in February 2027)


election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - APC 59, PDP 36, LP 8, NNPP 2, SDP 2, YPP 1, APGA 1; composition as of February 2024 - men 105, women 4, percentage women 3.7%

House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - APC 178, PDP 114, LP 35, NNPP 19, APGA 5, other 7, vacant 2; composition as of February 2024 - men 344, women 14, percentage women 3.8%; note - total National Assembly percentage women 3.9%