Monaco - MC - MCO - MON - Europe

Last updated: April 17, 2024
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Diplomatic representation from the US

embassy: US does not have an embassy in Monaco; the US Ambassador to France is accredited to Monaco; the US Consul General in Marseille (France), under the authority of the US Ambassador to France, handles diplomatic and consular matters concerning Monaco; +(33)(1) 43-12-22-22, enter zero "0" after the automated greeting; US Embassy Paris, 2 Avenue Gabriel, 75008 Paris, France

Age structure

0-14 years: 9.4% (male 1,522/female 1,448)

15-64 years: 54.42% (male 8,638/female 8,558)

65 years and over: 36.18% (2023 est.) (male 5,114/female 6,317)
2023 population pyramid
This is the population pyramid for Monaco. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Geographic coordinates

43 44 N, 7 24 E

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female

total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2023 est.)


3 (2024)

Natural hazards


Area - comparative

about three times the size of the National Mall in Washington, DC


The Genoese built a fortress on the site of present-day Monaco in 1215. The current ruling GRIMALDI family first seized control in 1297 but was not able to permanently secure its holding until 1419. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with a railroad linkup to France and the opening of a casino. Since then, the principality's mild climate, coastal Mediterranean scenery, and gambling facilities have made Monaco world famous as a tourist and recreation center.

Environment - current issues

no serious issues; actively monitors pollution levels in air and water

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Population below poverty line


Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: NA

highest 10%: NA

Administrative divisions

none; there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 4 quarters (quartiers, singular - quartier); Fontvieille, La Condamine, Monaco-Ville, Monte-Carlo; note - Moneghetti, a part of La Condamine, is sometimes called the 5th quarter of Monaco

Agricultural products


Military and security forces

no regular military forces; Ministry of Interior: Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince (Prince’s Company of Carabiniers), Corps des Sapeurs-pompiers de Monaco (Fire and Emergency), Police Department (2024)

note: the primary responsibility for the Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince is guarding the palace; the Police maintain public order


revenues: $896.3 million (2011 est.)

expenditures: $953.6 million (2011 est.)


name: Monaco

geographic coordinates: 43 44 N, 7 25 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: founded as a Greek colony in the 6th century B.C., the name derives from two Greek words monos (single, alone) and oikos (house) to convey the sense of a people "living apart" or in a "single habitation"


Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers


4.1 km


history: previous 1911 (suspended 1959); latest adopted 17 December 1962

amendments: proposed by joint agreement of the chief of state (the prince) and the National Council; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of National Council members; amended 2002

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
0.95 (2022 est.)
0.845 (2021 est.)
0.876 (2020 est.)
0.893 (2019 est.)
0.847 (2018 est.)

note: while not an EU member state, Monaco, due to its preexisting monetary and banking agreements with France, has a 1998 monetary agreement with the EU to produce limited euro coinage—but not banknotes—that began enforcement in January 2002 and superseded by a new EU agreement in 2012

Executive branch

chief of state: Prince ALBERT II (since 6 April 2005)

head of government: Minister of State Pierre DARTOUT (since 1 September 2020)

cabinet: Council of Government under the authority of the monarch

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; minister of state appointed by the monarch from a list of three French national candidates presented by the French Government

Fiscal year

calendar year

Flag description

two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; the colors are those of the ruling House of Grimaldi and have been in use since 1339, making the flag one of the world's oldest national banners

note: similar to the flag of Indonesia which is longer and the flag of Poland which is white (top) and red


1419 (beginning of permanent rule by the House of GRIMALDI)


banking, insurance, tourism, construction, small-scale industrial and consumer products

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 5 permanent members and 2 substitutes)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court members appointed by the monarch upon the proposals of the National Council, State Council, Crown Council, Court of Appeal, and Trial Court

subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; Civil Court of First Instance

Land boundaries

total: 6 km

border countries (1): France 6 km

Land use

agricultural land: 1% (2018 est.)

arable land: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0% (2018 est.)

forest: 0% (2018 est.)

other: 99% (2018 est.)

Legal system

civil law system influenced by French legal tradition

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 12 nm

International organization participation

CD, CE, FAO, IAEA, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IFRCS, IHO, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITSO, ITU, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Schengen Convention (de facto member), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

National holiday

National Day (Saint Rainier's Day), 19 November (1857)


noun: Monegasque(s) or Monacan(s)

adjective: Monegasque or Monacan

Natural resources


Geography - note

second-smallest independent state in the world (after the Holy See); smallest country with a coastline; almost entirely urban

Economic overview

high-income European economy; non-EU euro user; considered a tax haven; tourism and banking are largest sectors; negatively impacted by COVID-19; major oceanographic museum; among most expensive real estate; major state-owned enterprises

Political parties and leaders

Monegasque National Union [Brigitte BOCCONE-PAGES] (includes Horizon Monaco, Primo!, Union Monegasque)
Horizon Monaco [Laurent NOUVION]
Priorite Monaco or Primo! [Stephane VALERI]
Union Monegasque [Jean-Francois ROBILLON]

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Hercules Port


18 years of age; universal

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: modern automatic telephone system: the country's sole fixed-line operator offers a full range of services to residential and business customers; competitive mobile telephony market; 4G LTE widely available (2020)

domestic: fixed-line a little over 117 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity is 99 per 100 persons (2021)

international: country code - 377; landing points for the EIG and Italy-Monaco submarine cables connecting Monaco to Europe, Africa, the Middle East and Asia; no satellite earth stations; connected by cable into the French communications system (2019)


hilly, rugged, rocky

Government type

constitutional monarchy

Military - note

defense is the responsibility of France

Country name

conventional long form: Principality of Monaco

conventional short form: Monaco

local long form: Principaute de Monaco

local short form: Monaco

etymology: founded as a Greek colony in the 6th century B.C., the name derives from two Greek words "monos" (single, alone) and "oikos" (house) to convey the sense of a people "living apart" or in a "single habitation"


Western Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea on the southern coast of France, near the border with Italy

Map references


Irrigated land

0 sq km (2022)

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Maguy MACCARIO-DOYLE (since 3 December 2013)

chancery: 888 17th Street NW, Washington, DC 20006

telephone: [1] (202) 234-1530

FAX: [1] (202) 244-7656

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: New York

Internet country code


GDP (official exchange rate)

$8.784 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate


urban population: 100% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.5% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Broadcast media

TV Monte-Carlo operates a TV network; cable TV available; Radio Monte-Carlo has extensive radio networks in France and Italy with French-language broadcasts to France beginning in the 1960s and Italian-language broadcasts to Italy beginning in the 1970s; other radio stations include Riviera Radio and Radio Monaco

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: NA

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: NA

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

National anthem

name: "A Marcia de Muneghu" (The March of Monaco)

lyrics/music: Louis NOTARI/Charles ALBRECHT

note: music adopted 1867, lyrics adopted 1931; although French is commonly spoken, only the Monegasque lyrics are official; the French version is known as "Hymne Monegasque" (Monegasque Anthem); the words are generally only sung on official occasions
This is an audio of the National Anthem for Monaco. The national anthem is generally a patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.

Major urban areas - population

39,000 MONACO (capital) (2018)

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Physicians density

7.51 physicians/1,000 population (2014)

Hospital bed density

13.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)

National symbol(s)

red and white lozenges (diamond shapes); national colors: red, white


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Monaco; in the case of a child born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen and father unknown

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Population distribution

the second most densely populated country in the world (after Macau); its entire population living on 2 square km

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix


Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: NA

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: NA

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Ethnic groups

Monegasque 32.1%, French 19.9%, Italian 15.3%, British 5%, Belgian 2.3%, Swiss 2%, German 1.9%, Russian 1.8%, American 1.1%, Dutch 1.1%, Moroccan 1%, other 16.6% (2016 est.)

note: data represent population by country of birth


Roman Catholic 90% (official), other 10%


French (official), English, Italian, Monegasque

major-language sample(s):
The World Factbook, une source indispensable d'informations de base. (French)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.
French audio sample

Disputes - international

none identified


highest point: Chemin des Revoires on Mont Agel 162 m

lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

Contraceptive prevalence rate


Current health expenditure

1.7% of GDP (2020)

Military service age and obligation

the Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince is staffed by French nationals (2024)


total population: NA

male: NA

female: NA

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 95.2

youth dependency ratio: 25

elderly dependency ratio: 70.2

potential support ratio: 1.4 (2021)

Imports - partners

Italy, Switzerland, United Kingdom, Germany, China  (2021)

Imports - commodities

jewelry, cars and vehicle parts, recreational boats, plastic products, artwork (2021)

Exports - partners

Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Belgium, Spain


Exports - commodities

jewelry, perfumes, watches, packaged medicines, cars (2021)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 10 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 0 cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 0 cubic meters (2017 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 46,000 tons (2012 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 2,484 tons (2012 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 5.4% (2012 est.)

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 9.21 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

methane emissions: 0.05 megatons (2020 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

0.75 (2023 est.)

Labor force

52,000 (2014 est.)

note: includes all foreign workers

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 26.6% (2016 est.)

male: 25.7%

female: 27.9%

Net migration rate

10.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Median age

total: 56.2 years (2023 est.)

male: 54.5 years

female: 57.6 years

Debt - external


Total fertility rate

1.53 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Unemployment rate

2% (2012)


31,597 (2023 est.)

note: immigrants make up almost 68% of the total population, according to UN data (2019)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-1% (of GDP) (2011 est.)

Internet users

total: 31,820 (2021 est.)

percent of population: 86% (2021 est.)


total: 2 sq km

land: 2 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Taxes and other revenues

14.9% (of GDP) (2011 est.)

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$7.672 billion (2015 est.)
$7.279 billion (2014 est.)
$6.79 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 dollars

Infant mortality rate

total: 1.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 2.1 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 1.4 deaths/1,000 live births

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 36,255 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 99 (2021 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$115,700 (2015 est.)
$109,200 (2014 est.)
$101,900 (2013 est.)

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 20,877 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 53 (2020 est.)

Death rate

10.9 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Birth rate

6.6 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Merchant marine

total: 1

Children under the age of 5 years underweight



$1.371 billion (2017 est.)
$1.162 billion (2011 est.)

note: full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France


$964.6 million (2017 est.)
$1.115 billion (2011)

note: full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 44,649 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 117 (2021 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 89.6 years (2023 est.)

male: 85.8 years

female: 93.6 years

Real GDP growth rate

11.1% (2022 est.)
21.87% (2021 est.)
-13.01% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

Industrial production growth rate

4.3% (2014 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency


note: Monaco has a single railway station but does not operate its own train service;  the French operator SNCF operates rail services in Monaco

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 0% (2013)

industry: 14% (2013)

services: 86% (2013)

Revenue from forest resources

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Education expenditures

1.2% of GDP (2019 est.)

Population growth rate

0.66% (2023 est.)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Council or Conseil National (24 seats; 16 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 8 directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)

last held on 5 February 2023 (next to be held in February 2028)

election results:
percent of vote by coalition - Monegasque National Union 100%; seats by coalition - Monegasque National Union 24; composition as of February 2024 - men 13, women 11, percent of women 45.8%