Honduras - HN - HND - HON - Central America and the Caribbean

Last updated: April 15, 2024
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Honduras Factbook Data

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Laura F. DOGU (since 12 April 2022)

embassy: Avenida La Paz, Tegucigalpa M.D.C.

mailing address: 3480 Tegucigalpa Place, Washington DC  20521-3480

telephone: [504] 2236-9320,

FAX: [504] 2236-9037

email address and website:


Age structure

0-14 years: 27.92% (male 1,352,581/female 1,319,338)

15-64 years: 66.18% (male 3,050,008/female 3,283,949)

65 years and over: 5.91% (2023 est.) (male 249,241/female 316,235)
2023 population pyramid
This is the population pyramid for Honduras. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Geographic coordinates

15 00 N, 86 30 W

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female

total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Natural hazards

frequent, but generally mild, earthquakes; extremely susceptible to damaging hurricanes and floods along the Caribbean coast

Area - comparative

slightly larger than Tennessee
Area comparison map

slightly larger than Tennessee

Military service age and obligation

18-22 years of age for voluntary military service for men and women; 24-36 month service obligation; no conscription (2024)

note: as of 2023, women made up about 9% of the active duty military


Once part of Spain's vast empire in the New World, Honduras became an independent nation in 1821. After two and a half decades of mostly military rule, a freely elected civilian government came to power in 1982. During the 1980s, Honduras proved a haven for anti-Sandinista contras fighting the Marxist Nicaraguan Government and an ally to Salvadoran Government forces fighting leftist guerrillas. The country was devastated by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, which killed about 5,600 people and caused approximately $2 billion in damage. Since then, the economy has slowly rebounded, despite COVID and severe storm-related setbacks in 2020 and 2021.

Environment - current issues

urban population expanding; deforestation results from logging and the clearing of land for agricultural purposes; further land degradation and soil erosion hastened by uncontrolled development and improper land use practices such as farming of marginal lands; mining activities polluting Lago de Yojoa (the country's largest source of fresh water), as well as several rivers and streams, with heavy metals

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Population below poverty line

48% (2019 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 1.2%

highest 10%: 34.6% (2019 est.)

note: % share of income accruing to lowest and highest 10% of population

Exports - commodities

clothing and apparel, coffee, insulated wiring, palm oil, shrimp, gold, bananas (2021)

Exports - partners

United States 53%, El Salvador 8%, Guatemala 5%, Nicaragua 5% (2019)

Administrative divisions

18 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Atlantida, Choluteca, Colon, Comayagua, Copan, Cortes, El Paraiso, Francisco Morazan, Gracias a Dios, Intibuca, Islas de la Bahia, La Paz, Lempira, Ocotepeque, Olancho, Santa Barbara, Valle, Yoro

Agricultural products

sugarcane, oil palm fruit, milk, bananas, maize, coffee, melons, oranges, poultry, beans

Military and security forces

Honduran Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas de Honduras, FFAA): Army (Ejercito), Honduran Naval Forces (Fuerzas Naval Hondurena, FNH; includes marines), Honduran Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Hondurena, FAH), Honduran Military Police of Public Order (Policía Militar del Orden Público or PMOP) (2024)

note 1: the National Police of Honduras (Policía Nacional de Honduras, PNH) are under the Secretariat of Security and responsible for internal security; some larger cities have police forces that operate independently of the national police and report to municipal authorities 

note 2: the PMOP supports the PNH against narcotics trafficking and organized crime; it is subordinate to the Secretariat of Defense/FFAA, but conducts operations sanctioned by civilian security officials as well as by military leaders 

note 3: the National Interinstitutional Security Force is an interagency command that coordinates the overlapping responsibilities of the HNP, PMOP, and other security organizations such as the National Intelligence Directorate and the Public Ministry (public prosecutor), but exercises coordination, command, and control responsibilities only during interagency operations involving those forces


revenues: $6.476 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $6.454 billion (2019 est.)


name: Tegucigalpa; note - article eight of the Honduran constitution states that the twin cities of Tegucigalpa and Comayaguela, jointly, constitute the capital of the Republic of Honduras; however, virtually all governmental institutions are on the Tegucigalpa side, which in practical terms makes Tegucigalpa the capital

geographic coordinates: 14 06 N, 87 13 W

time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC during Standard Time)

etymology: while most sources agree that Tegucigalpa is of Nahuatl derivation, there is no consensus on its original meaning

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, clothing and apparel, packaged medicines, broadcasting equipment, insulated wiring (2019)


subtropical in lowlands, temperate in mountains


823 km (Caribbean Sea 669 km, Gulf of Fonseca 163 km)


history: several previous; latest approved 11 January 1982, effective 20 January 1982

amendments: proposed by the National Congress with at least two-thirds majority vote of the membership; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of Congress in its next annual session; constitutional articles, such as the form of government, national sovereignty, the presidential term, and the procedure for amending the constitution, cannot be amended; amended several times, last in 2021

Exchange rates

lempiras (HNL) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
24.486 (2022 est.)
24.017 (2021 est.)
24.582 (2020 est.)
24.509 (2019 est.)
23.903 (2018 est.)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Iris Xiomara CASTRO de Zelaya (since 27 January 2022); Vice Presidents Salvador NASRALLA, Doris GUTIÉRREZ, and Renato FLORENTINO (all since 27 January 2022); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; CASTRO is Honduras' first female president

head of government: President Iris Xiomara CASTRO de Zelaya (since 27 January 2022); Vice Presidents Salvador NASRALLA, Doris GUTIÉRREZ, and Renato FLORENTINO (all since 27 January 2022)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term; election last held on 28 November 2021 (next to be held on 30 November 2025); note - in 2015, the Constitutional Chamber of the Honduran Supreme Court struck down the constitutional provisions on presidential term limits

election results:
2021: Iris Xiomara CASTRO de Zelaya elected president; percent of vote - Iris Xiomara CASTRO de Zelaya (LIBRE) 51.1%, Nasry Juan ASFURA Zablah (PNH) 36.9%, Yani Benjamin ROSENTHAL Hidalgo (PL) 10%, other 2%

Juan Orlando HERNANDEZ Alvarado reelected president; percent of vote - Juan Orlando HERNANDEZ Alvarado (PNH) 43%, Salvador NASRALLA (Alianza de Oposicion contra la Dictadura) 41.4%, Luis Orlando ZELAYA Medrano (PL) 14.7%, other 0.9%

Fiscal year

calendar year

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of cerulean blue (top), white, and cerulean blue, with five cerulean, five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band; the stars represent the members of the former Federal Republic of Central America: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua; the blue bands symbolize the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea; the white band represents the land between the two bodies of water and the peace and prosperity of its people

note: similar to the flag of El Salvador, which features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom, centered in the white band

Illicit drugs

transshipment point for cocaine destined for the United States and precursor chemicals used to produce illicit drugs; some small-scale coca cultivation



15 September 1821 (from Spain)


sugar processing, coffee, woven and knit apparel, wood products, cigars

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (15 principal judges, including the court president, and 6 alternates; court organized into civil, criminal, constitutional, and labor chambers); note - the court has both judicial and constitutional jurisdiction

judge selection and term of office: court president elected by his peers; judges elected by the National Congress from candidates proposed by the Nominating Board, a diverse 7-member group of judicial officials and other government and non-government officials nominated by each of their organizations; judges elected by Congress for renewable, 7-year terms

subordinate courts: courts of appeal; courts of first instance; justices of the peace

Land boundaries

total: 1,575 km

border countries (3): Guatemala 244 km; El Salvador 391 km; Nicaragua 940 km

Land use

agricultural land: 28.8% (2018 est.)

arable land: 9.1% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 4% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 15.7% (2018 est.)

forest: 45.3% (2018 est.)

other: 25.9% (2018 est.)

Legal system

civil law system

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional (128 seats; members directly elected in 18 multi-seat constituencies by closed party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

last held on 28 November 2021 (next to be held on 30 November 2025)

election results:
percent of vote by party - LIBRE 39.8%, PNH 31.3%, PL 16.4%, PSH 10.9%, DC 0.8%, PAC 0.8%; seats by party - LIBRE 51, PNH 40, PL 21, PSH 14, DC 1, PAC 1; composition as of February 2024 - men 93, women 35, percentage women 27.3%

note: seats by party as of 1 May 2022 - LIBRE 50, PNH 44, PL 22, PSH 10, DC 1, PAC 1


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 88.5%

male: 88.2%

female: 88.7% (2019)

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: natural extension of territory or to 200 nm

International organization participation

BCIE, CACM, CD, CELAC, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC (suspended), IOM, IPU, ISO (subscriber), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, Petrocaribe, SICA, UN, UNCTAD, UNHRC, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO (suspended), WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

National holiday

Independence Day, 15 September (1821)


noun: Honduran(s)

adjective: Honduran

Natural resources

timber, gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, iron ore, antimony, coal, fish, hydropower

Geography - note

has only a short Pacific coast but a long Caribbean shoreline, including the virtually uninhabited eastern Mosquito Coast

Economic overview

second-fastest-growing Central American economy; COVID-19 and two hurricanes crippled activity; high poverty and inequality; declining-but-still-high violent crime disruption; systemic corruption; coffee and banana exporter; enormous remittances

Political parties and leaders

Anti-Corruption Party or PAC [Marlene ALVARENGA]
Christian Democratic Party or DC [Carlos PORTILLO]
Democratic Liberation of Honduras or Liderh [Lempira VIANA]
Democratic Unification Party or UD [Alfonso DIAZ Narvaez]
The Front or El Frente [Kelin PEREZ]
Honduran Patriotic Alliance or AP [Romeo VASQUEZ Velasquez]
Innovation and Unity Party or PINU [Guillermo VALLE]
Liberal Party or PL [Yani Benjamin ROSENTHAL Hidalgo]
Liberty and Refoundation Party or LIBRE [Jose Manuel ZELAYA Rosales]
National Party of Honduras or PNH [Juan Nasry ASFURA]
New Route or NR [Esdras Amado LOPEZ]
Opposition Alliance against the Dictatorship or Alianza de Oposicion contra la Dictadura [Salvador NASRALLA] (electoral coalition)
Savior Party of Honduras or PSH [Salvador Alejandro Cesar NASRALLA Salum]
Vamos or Let’s Go [Jose COTO]
We Are All Honduras (Todos Somos Honduras) or TSH [Marlon Oniel ESCOTO Valerio]

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): La Ceiba, Puerto Cortes, San Lorenzo, Tela


18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Telecommunication systems

general assessment:

Honduras is among the poorest countries in Central America and has long been plagued by an unstable political framework which has rendered telecom sector reform difficult; this has created real difficulties for telcos as well as consumers; fixed-line teledensity, at only 4.9%, is significantly lower than the Latin American and Caribbean average; poor fixed-line infrastructure has been exacerbated by low investment and topographical difficulties which have made investment in rural areas unattractive or uneconomical; the internet has been slow to develop; DSL and cable modem technologies are available but are relatively expensive, while higher speed services are largely restricted to the major urban centers; the demand for broadband is steadily increasing and there has been some investment in network upgrades to fiber-based infrastructure



domestic: fixed-line teledensity of 5 per 100; mobile-cellular subscribership is roughly 74 per 100 persons (2021)

international: country code - 504; landing points for both the ARCOS and the MAYA-1 fiber-optic submarine cable systems that together provide connectivity to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to Central American Microwave System (2019)


mostly mountains in interior, narrow coastal plains

Government type

presidential republic

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Honduras

conventional short form: Honduras

local long form: República de Honduras

local short form: Honduras

etymology: the name means "depths" in Spanish and refers to the deep anchorage in the northern Bay of Trujillo


Central America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Guatemala and Nicaragua and bordering the Gulf of Fonseca (North Pacific Ocean), between El Salvador and Nicaragua

Map references

Central America and the Caribbean

Irrigated land

900 sq km (2012)

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Javier Efrain BU SOTO (since 12 December 2022)

chancery: 1220 19th Street NW, Suite #320, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 966-7702

FAX: [1] (202) 966-9751

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco

consulate(s): Dallas, McAllen (TX)

Internet country code


Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: high (2023)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever

Refugees and internally displaced persons

IDPs: 247,000 (violence, extortion, threats, forced recruitment by urban gangs between 2004 and 2018) (2023)

GDP (official exchange rate)

$31.718 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Credit ratings

Moody's rating: B1 (2017)

Standard & Poors rating: BB- (2017)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

Total renewable water resources

92.16 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 10 years

male: 10 years

female: 11 years (2019)


urban population: 60.2% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 2.48% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Broadcast media

multiple privately owned terrestrial TV networks, supplemented by multiple cable TV networks; Radio Honduras is the lone government-owned radio network; roughly 300 privately owned radio stations (2019)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 90.7% of population

total: 96.1% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 9.3% of population

total: 3.9% of population (2020 est.)

National anthem

name: "Himno Nacional de Honduras" (National Anthem of Honduras)

lyrics/music: Augusto Constancio COELLO/Carlos HARTLING

note: adopted 1915; the anthem's seven verses chronicle Honduran history; on official occasions, only the chorus and last verse are sung
This is an audio of the National Anthem for Honduras. The national anthem is generally a patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.

Major urban areas - population

1.568 million TEGUCIGALPA (capital), 982,000 San Pedro Sula (2023)

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Hospital bed density

0.6 beds/1,000 population (2017)

National symbol(s)

scarlet macaw, white-tailed deer; national colors: blue, white

Mother's mean age at first birth

20.3 years (2011/12 est.)

note: data represents median age a first birth among women 25-49

Demographic profile

Honduras is one of the poorest countries in Latin America and has one of the world's highest murder rates. More than half of the population lives in poverty and per capita income is one of the lowest in the region. Poverty rates are higher among rural and indigenous people and in the south, west, and along the eastern border than in the north and central areas where most of Honduras' industries and infrastructure are concentrated. The increased productivity needed to break Honduras' persistent high poverty rate depends, in part, on further improvements in educational attainment. Although primary-school enrollment is near 100%, educational quality is poor, the drop-out rate and grade repetition remain high, and teacher and school accountability is low.

Honduras' population growth rate has slowed since the 1990s and is now 1.2% annually with a birth rate that averages 2.1 children per woman and more among rural, indigenous, and poor women. Honduras' young adult population - ages 15 to 29 - is projected to continue growing rapidly for the next three decades and then stabilize or slowly shrink. Population growth and limited job prospects outside of agriculture will continue to drive emigration. Remittances represent about a fifth of GDP.

Contraceptive prevalence rate

69.4% (2019)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 77.7% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 13.8% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 23.1% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.7% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 43.6% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -58.9% (2017 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 53.3

youth dependency ratio: 46.9

elderly dependency ratio: 6.4

potential support ratio: 15.5 (2021 est.)


citizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent only: yes

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 1 to 3 years

Population distribution

most residents live in the mountainous western half of the country; unlike other Central American nations, Honduras is the only one with an urban population that is distributed between two large centers - the capital of Tegucigalpa and the city of San Pedro Sula; the Rio Ulua valley in the north is the only densely populated lowland area

Electricity access

population without electricity: 1 million (2020)

electrification - total population: 94.1% (2021)

electrification - urban areas: 100% (2021)

electrification - rural areas: 85.6% (2021)

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 4 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 26

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 251,149 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 450,000 (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix


Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 96.7% of population

rural: 87.9% of population

total: 93% of population

unimproved: urban: 3.3% of population

rural: 12.1% of population

total: 7% of population (2020 est.)

Ethnic groups

Mestizo (mixed Indigenous and European) 90%, Indigenous 7%, African descent 2%, White 1%


Evangelical/Protestant 48%, Roman Catholic 34%, other 1%, none 17% (2020 est.)


Spanish (official), Amerindian dialects

major-language sample(s):
La Libreta Informativa del Mundo, la fuente indispensable de información básica. (Spanish)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.
Spanish audio sample

Imports - partners

United States 42%, China 10%, Guatemala 8%, El Salvador 8%, Mexico 6% (2019)

Disputes - international

Honduras-El Salvador: International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled on the delimitation of "bolsones" (disputed areas) along the El Salvador-Honduras border in 1992 with final settlement by the parties in 2006 after an Organization of American States survey and a further ICJ ruling in 2003; the 1992 ICJ ruling advised a tripartite resolution to a maritime boundary in the Gulf of Fonseca with consideration of Honduran access to the Pacific; El Salvador continues to claim tiny Conejo Island, not mentioned in the ICJ ruling, off Honduras in the Gulf of Fonseca.

Honduras claims the Belizean-administered Sapodilla Cays off the coast of Belize in its constitution; in 2022, Belize instituted proceedings against Honduras concerning sovereignty over the Sapodilla Cayes; the dispute is pending resolution in the ICJ


highest point: Cerro Las Minas 2,870 m

lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

mean elevation: 684 m

Physicians density

0.5 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Current health expenditure

9% of GDP (2020)

Military - note

the Honduran Armed Forces (FFAA) are responsible for maintaining the country’s territory, defending its sovereignty, providing emergency/humanitarian assistance, and supporting the National Police (PNH); the FFAA’s primary focus is internal and border security, and since 2011 a considerable portion of it has been deployed to support the PNH in combating narcotics trafficking and organized crime; military support to domestic security included the creation of the Military Police of Public Order (PMOP) in 2013 to provide security in areas controlled by street gangs to combat crime and make arrests; the PMOP also has sent personnel to reinforce security operations along the country’s border as part of a tri-national security task force with El Salvador and Guatemala; the FFAA has received military equipment, training, humanitarian, and technical assistance from the US military; the US military maintains a joint service task force co-located with the FFAA at Soto Cano Air Base

the Army’s combat forces include five infantry brigades, a special operations group, and approximately eight military police battalions; the Navy is a small force focused on coastal and riverine security that operates an ocean-going patrol vessel acquired in 2019 and supported by small flotillas of coastal and riverine patrol boats, as well as a small naval infantry force; the Air Force has a handful of older US-made jet fighters and light ground attack aircraft (2023)

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 16,000 active personnel (7,500 Army; 1,500 Navy, including about 1,000 marines; 2,000 Air Force; 5,000 Military Police of Public Order); approximately 18,000 National Police (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the FFAA's inventory is comprised of mostly older imported equipment from Israel, the UK, and the US; in recent years, it has received limited amounts of military equipment from several countries, including Colombia and Israel (2023)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 320 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 111 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 1.18 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 2,162,028 tons (2016 est.)

Average household expenditures

on food: 32.8% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 4.7% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 18.93 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 9.81 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 7.72 megatons (2020 est.)

Major lakes (area sq km)

salt water lake(s): Laguna de Caratasca - 1,110 sq km

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 2 (1 cultural, 1 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Maya Site of Copan (c); Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve (n)


6 (2024)


production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 25,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 25,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 46.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 10.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 7.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 24.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 2.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 8.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)


total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 66,800 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

1.17 (2023 est.)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

53.5% (2023 est.)


26.75% of GDP (2022 est.)
25.29% of GDP (2021 est.)
23.45% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 9.2%

women married by age 18: 34%

men married by age 18: 10% (2019 est.)

Labor force

4.565 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 15.5% (2021 est.)

male: 11.4%

female: 24.6%

Net migration rate

-1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Median age

total: 25.3 years (2023 est.)

male: 24.4 years

female: 26.2 years

Debt - external

$9.137 billion (2019 est.)
$8.722 billion (2018 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

72 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$8.41 billion (2022 est.)
$8.667 billion (2021 est.)
$8.138 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars


465 km (2012) (most navigable only by small craft)

Refined petroleum products - imports

56,120 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Public debt

39.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
38.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

Total fertility rate

2.37 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Military expenditures

1.4% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.5% of GDP (2021 est.)
1.6% of GDP (2020 est.)
1.6% of GDP (2019 est.)
1.6% of GDP (2018 est.)

Unemployment rate

7% (2022 est.)
8.23% (2021 est.)
10.68% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment


9,571,352 (2023 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-2.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Internet users

total: 4.8 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 48% (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

8.523 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 61,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 8.462 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)


total: 112,090 sq km

land: 111,890 sq km

water: 200 sq km

Taxes and other revenues

14.77% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$59.562 billion (2022 est.)
$57.273 billion (2021 est.)
$50.894 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars


total: 14,742 km

paved: 3,367 km

unpaved: 11,375 km (2012) (1,543 km summer only)

note: an additional 8,951 km of non-official roads used by the coffee industry


129 (2024)

Infant mortality rate

total: 15.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 17.6 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 13.3 deaths/1,000 live births

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 7,560,710 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 74 (2021 est.)

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

48.2 (2019 est.)

note: index (0-100) of income distribution; higher values represent greater inequality

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

9.09% (2022 est.)
4.48% (2021 est.)
3.47% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

Refined petroleum products - exports

12,870 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Current account balance

-$2.083 billion (2022 est.)
-$1.528 billion (2021 est.)
$665.854 million (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

Real GDP per capita

$5,700 (2022 est.)
$5,600 (2021 est.)
$5,000 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 396,916 (2020)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 4 (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

21.4% (2016)

Energy consumption per capita

19.8 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Death rate

5.9 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Birth rate

20.2 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)


installed generating capacity: 3.991 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 8,140,480,000 kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 540 million kWh (2019 est.)

imports: 787 million kWh (2019 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 3.16 billion kWh (2019 est.)

Merchant marine

total: 489 (2023)

by type: general cargo 233, oil tanker 82, other 174

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

7.1% (2019)


$17.957 billion (2022 est.)
$14.869 billion (2021 est.)
$9.94 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars


$9.385 billion (2022 est.)
$8.062 billion (2021 est.)
$6.269 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 413,936 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 5 (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2017 est.)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 2.73 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 1.6 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.04 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 1.09 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 71.9 years (2023 est.)

male: 68.4 years

female: 75.5 years

Real GDP growth rate

4% (2022 est.)
12.53% (2021 est.)
-8.96% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

Industrial production growth rate

5.31% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency


total: 699 km (2014)

narrow gauge: 164 km (2014) 1.067-m gauge

115 km 1.057-mm gauge
420 km 0.914-mm gauge

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 14.2% (2017 est.)

industry: 28.8% (2017 est.)

services: 57% (2017 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

0.91% of GDP (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Education expenditures

6.4% of GDP (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

1.28% (2023 est.)