Cape Verde - CV - CPV - CPV - Africa

Last updated: April 12, 2024
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Cabo Verde Factbook Data

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador John "Jeff" DAIGLE (since 10 September 2019)

embassy: Rua Abilio Macedo 6, Praia

mailing address: 2460 Praia Place, Washington DC  20521-2460

telephone: [238] 260-8900

FAX: [238] 261-1355

email address and website:

Age structure

0-14 years: 26.68% (male 80,974/female 80,143)

15-64 years: 67.18% (male 198,503/female 207,205)

65 years and over: 6.14% (2023 est.) (male 14,099/female 22,977)
2023 population pyramid
This is the population pyramid for Cabo Verde. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Geographic coordinates

16 00 N, 24 00 W

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Natural hazards

prolonged droughts; seasonal harmattan wind produces obscuring dust; volcanically and seismically active

volcanism: Fogo (2,829 m), which last erupted in 1995, is Cabo Verde's only active volcano

Area - comparative

slightly larger than Rhode Island

Military service age and obligation

18-35 years of age for male and female selective compulsory military service; 24-month conscript service obligation; 17 years of age for voluntary service (with parental consent) (2023)


The Portuguese discovered and colonized the uninhabited islands of Cabo Verde in the 15th century; Cabo Verde subsequently became a trading center for African slaves and later an important coaling and resupply stop for whaling and transatlantic shipping. The fusing of European and various African cultural traditions is reflected in Cabo Verde’s Crioulo language, music, and pano textiles. After gaining independence in 1975, a one-party system was established and maintained until multi-party elections were held in 1990. Cabo Verde continues to sustain one of Africa's most stable democratic governments and relatively stable economies, maintaining a currency pegged first to the Portuguese escudo and then to the euro since 1998. Repeated droughts during the second half of the 20th century caused significant hardship and prompted heavy emigration. As a result, Cabo Verde's expatriate population -- concentrated in Boston, Massachusetts and Western Europe -- is greater than its domestic one.

Most Cabo Verdeans have both African and Portuguese antecedents. Cabo Verde’s population descends from its first permanent inhabitants in the late 15th-century -- a preponderance of West African slaves, a small share of Portuguese colonists, and even fewer Italians and Spaniards. Among the nine inhabited islands, population distribution is varied. The islands in the east are very dry and are home to the country's growing tourism industry. The more western islands receive more precipitation and support larger populations, but agriculture and livestock grazing have damaged their soil fertility and vegetation. For centuries, the country’s overall population size has fluctuated significantly, as recurring periods of famine and epidemics have caused high death tolls and emigration. 

Environment - current issues

deforestation due to demand for firewood; water shortages; prolonged droughts and improper use of land (overgrazing, crop cultivation on hillsides lead to desertification and erosion); environmental damage has threatened several species of birds and reptiles; illegal beach sand extraction; overfishing

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Population below poverty line

35.2% (2015 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.2%

highest 10%: 32.3% (2015 est.)

note: % share of income accruing to lowest and highest 10% of population

Exports - commodities

tuna, mackerel, aircraft, other processed and frozen fish, postage stamps and title bond paper documents, mollusks (2021)

Exports - partners

Spain 65%, Portugal 14%, Italy 8% (2019)

Administrative divisions

22 municipalities (concelhos, singular - concelho); Boa Vista, Brava, Maio, Mosteiros, Paul, Porto Novo, Praia, Ribeira Brava, Ribeira Grande, Ribeira Grande de Santiago, Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Catarina do Fogo, Santa Cruz, Sao Domingos, Sao Filipe, Sao Lourenco dos Orgaos, Sao Miguel, Sao Salvador do Mundo, Sao Vicente, Tarrafal, Tarrafal de Sao Nicolau

Agricultural products

sugar cane, tomatoes, bananas, cabbages, coconuts, cassava, pulses, vegetables, milk, goat milk

Military and security forces

Cabo Verdean Armed Forces (FACV): Army (also called the National Guard, GN; includes a small air component), Cabo Verde Coast Guard (Guardia Costeira de Cabo Verde, GCCV) (2023)

note:  the National Police are under the Ministry of Internal Affairs


revenues: $583 million (2019 est.)

expenditures: $619 million (2019 est.)


name: Praia

geographic coordinates: 14 55 N, 23 31 W

time difference: UTC-1 (4 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: the earlier Portuguese name was Villa de Praia ("Village of the Beach"); it became just Praia in 1974 (prior to full independence in 1975)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, delivery trucks, coal tar oil, cars, rice (2019)


temperate; warm, dry summer; precipitation meager and erratic


965 km


history: previous 1981; latest effective 25 September 1992

amendments: proposals require support of at least four fifths of the active National Assembly membership; amendment drafts require sponsorship of at least one third of the active Assembly membership; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly membership; constitutional sections, including those on national independence, form of government, political pluralism, suffrage, and human rights and liberties, cannot be amended; revised 1995, 1999, 2010

Exchange rates

Cabo Verdean escudos (CVE) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
105.531 (2022 est.)
93.218 (2021 est.)
96.796 (2020 est.)
98.495 (2019 est.)
93.414 (2018 est.)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Jose Maria Pereira NEVES (since 9 November 2021)

head of government: Prime Minister Jose Ulisses CORREIA e SILVA (since 22 April 2016)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 17 October 2021 (next to be held in October 2026); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly and appointed by the president

election results:
Jose Maria Pereira NEVES elected president; percent of vote - Jose Maria Pereira NEVES (PAICV) 51.7%, Carlos VEIGA (MPD) 42.4%, Casimiro DE PINA (independent) 1.8%, Fernando Rocha DELGADO (independent) 1.4%, Helio SANCHES (independent) 1.14%, Gilson ALVES (independent) 0.8%, Joaquim MONTEIRO (independent) 3.4%

2016: Jorge Carlos FONSECA reelected president; percent of vote - Jorge Carlos FONSECA (MPD) 74.1%, Albertino GRACA (independent) 22.5%, other 3.4%

Fiscal year

calendar year

Flag description

five unequal horizontal bands; the top-most band of blue - equal to one half the width of the flag - is followed by three bands of white, red, and white, each equal to 1/12 of the width, and a bottom stripe of blue equal to one quarter of the flag width; a circle of 10 yellow, five-pointed stars is centered on the red stripe and positioned 3/8 of the length of the flag from the hoist side; blue stands for the sea and the sky, the circle of stars represents the 10 major islands united into a nation, the stripes symbolize the road to formation of the country through peace (white) and effort (red)

Illicit drugs

narcotraffickers transit cocaine, cannabis, and other drugs to Africa and Europe; domestic trafficking contributes to increased consumption of illicit substances;


5 July 1975 (from Portugal)


food and beverages, fish processing, shoes and garments, salt mining, ship repair

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice (consists of the chief justice and at least 7 judges and organized into civil, criminal, and administrative sections)

judge selection and term of office: judge appointments - 1 by the president of the republic, 1 elected by the National Assembly, and 3 by the Superior Judicial Council (SJC), a 16-member independent body chaired by the chief justice and includes the attorney general, 8 private citizens, 2 judges, 2 prosecutors, the senior legal inspector of the Attorney General's office, and a representative of the Ministry of Justice; chief justice appointed by the president of the republic from among peers of the Supreme Court of Justice and in consultation with the SJC; judges appointed for life

subordinate courts: appeals courts, first instance (municipal) courts; audit, military, and fiscal and customs courts

Land boundaries

total: 0 km

Land use

agricultural land: 18.6% (2018 est.)

arable land: 11.7% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.7% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 6.2% (2018 est.)

forest: 21% (2018 est.)

other: 60.4% (2018 est.)

Legal system

civil law system of Portugal

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (72 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 18 April 2021 (next to be held in April 2026)

election results: percent of vote by party MPD 50.2%, PAICV 39.6%, UCID 9.0%, other 1.2%; seats by party - MPD 38, PAICV 30, UCID 4; composition as of October 2023 - men 44, women 28, percent of women 38.9%


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 90.8%

male: 94.2%

female: 87.4% (2021)

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

measured from claimed archipelagic baselines

International organization participation


National holiday

Independence Day, 5 July (1975)


noun: Cabo Verdean(s)

adjective: Cabo Verdean

Natural resources

salt, basalt rock, limestone, kaolin, fish, clay, gypsum

Geography - note

strategic location 500 km from west coast of Africa near major north-south sea routes; important communications station; important sea and air refueling site; one of four North Atlantic archipelagos that make up Macaronesia; the others are Azores (Portugal), Canary Islands (Spain), and Madeira (Portugal)

Economic overview

tourism-dominated economy benefits from the country’s relative close proximity to Europe; 2009 Financial Crisis halted economic growth for seven years; leveraging export-based growth; COVID-19 decimated economic growth and recovery; high external debt

Political parties and leaders

African Party for Independence of Cabo Verde or PAICV [Jose Maria Pereira NEVES]
Democratic and Independent Cabo Verdean Union or UCID [João DOS SANTOS LUIS]
Democratic Christian Party or PDC [Manuel RODRIGUES]
Democratic Renewal Party or PRD [Victor FIDALGO]
Movement for Democracy or MPD [Ulisses CORREIA E SILVA]
Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD [Dr. Eurico MONTEIRO]
Party of Work and Solidarity or PTS [Anibal MEDINA]
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Joao ALEM]

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Porto Grande


18 years of age; universal

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: LTE reaches almost 40% of the population; regulator awards commercial 4G licenses and starts 5G pilot; govt. extends USD 25 million for submarine fiber-optic cable project linking Africa to Portugal and Brazil (2020)

domestic: 9 per 100 fixed-line teledensity and nearly 100 per 100 mobile-cellular (2021)

international: country code - 238; landing points for the Atlantis-2, EllaLink, Cabo Verde Telecom Domestic Submarine Cable Phase 1, 2, 3 and WACS fiber-optic transatlantic telephone cable that provides links to South America, Africa, and Europe; HF radiotelephone to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)


steep, rugged, rocky, volcanic

Government type

parliamentary republic

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Cabo Verde

conventional short form: Cabo Verde

local long form: Republica de Cabo Verde

local short form: Cabo Verde

etymology: the name derives from Cap-Vert (Green Cape) on the Senegalese coast, the westernmost point of Africa and the nearest mainland to the islands


Western Africa, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Senegal

Map references


Irrigated land

35 sq km (2012)

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Jose Luis do Livramento MONTEIRO ALVES DE BRITO (since 23 December 2020)

chancery: 3415 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 965-6820

FAX: [1] (202) 965-1207

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: Boston

Internet country code


Refugees and internally displaced persons

stateless persons: 115 (2022)

GDP (official exchange rate)

$2.227 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Total renewable water resources

300 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 13 years

male: 12 years

female: 13 years (2018)


urban population: 68% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 1.83% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Broadcast media

state-run TV and radio broadcast network plus a growing number of private broadcasters; Portuguese public TV and radio services for Africa are available; transmissions of a few international broadcasters are available (2019)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 90% of population

total: 96.7% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 10% of population

total: 3.3% of population (2020 est.)

National anthem

name: "Cantico da Liberdade" (Song of Freedom)

lyrics/music: Amilcar Spencer LOPES/Adalberto Higino Tavares SILVA

note: adopted 1996
This is an audio of the National Anthem for Cabo Verde. The national anthem is generally a patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.

Major urban areas - population

168,000 PRAIA (capital) (2018)

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Physicians density

0.83 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Hospital bed density

2.1 beds/1,000 population

National symbol(s)

ten, five-pointed, yellow stars; national colors: blue, white, red, yellow

Demographic profile

Cabo Verde’s population descends from its first permanent inhabitants in the late 15th-century – a preponderance of West African slaves, a small share of Portuguese colonists, and even fewer Italians, Spaniards, and Portuguese Jews. Over the centuries, the country’s overall population size has fluctuated significantly, as recurring periods of famine and epidemics have caused high death tolls and emigration.

Labor migration historically reduced Cabo Verde’s population growth and still provides a key source of income through remittances. Expatriates probably outnumber Cabo Verde’s resident population, with most families having a member abroad. Cabo Verdeans have settled in the US, Europe, Africa, and South America. The largest diaspora community in New Bedford, Massachusetts, dating to the early 1800s, is a byproduct of the transatlantic whaling industry. Cabo Verdean men fleeing poverty at home joined the crews of US whaling ships that stopped in the islands. Many settled in New Bedford and stayed in the whaling or shipping trade, worked in the textile or cranberry industries, or operated their own transatlantic packet ships that transported compatriots to the US. Increased Cabo Verdean emigration to the US coincided with the gradual and eventually complete abolition of slavery in the archipelago in 1878.

During the same period, Portuguese authorities coerced Cabo Verdeans to go to Sao Tome and Principe and other Portuguese colonies in Africa to work as indentured laborers on plantations. In the 1920s, when the US implemented immigration quotas, Cabo Verdean emigration shifted toward Portugal, West Africa (Senegal), and South America (Argentina). Growing numbers of Cabo Verdean labor migrants headed to Western Europe in the 1960s and 1970s. They filled unskilled jobs in Portugal, as many Portuguese sought out work opportunities in the more prosperous economies of northwest Europe. Cabo Verdeans eventually expanded their emigration to the Netherlands, where they worked in the shipping industry. Migration to the US resumed under relaxed migration laws. Cabo Verdean women also began migrating to southern Europe to become domestic workers, a trend that continues today and has shifted the gender balance of Cabo Verdean emigration.

Emigration has declined in more recent decades due to the adoption of more restrictive migration policies in destination countries. Reduced emigration along with a large youth population, decreased mortality rates, and increased life expectancies, has boosted population growth, putting further pressure on domestic employment and resources. In addition, Cabo Verde has attracted increasing numbers of migrants in recent decades, consisting primarily of people from West Africa, Portuguese-speaking African countries, Portugal, and China. Since the 1990s, some West African migrants have used Cabo Verde as a stepping stone for illegal migration to Europe.

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 50.1% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 18.3% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 32.2% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 1.9% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 48.6% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -51.1% (2017 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 47.2

youth dependency ratio: 39.2

elderly dependency ratio: 8

potential support ratio: 12.5 (2021 est.)


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Cabo Verde

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Population distribution

among the nine inhabited islands, population distribution is variable; islands in the east are very dry and are only sparsely settled to exploit their extensive salt deposits; the more southerly islands receive more precipitation and support larger populations, but agriculture and livestock grazing have damaged the soil fertility and vegetation; approximately half of the population lives on Sao Tiago Island, which is the location of the capital of Praia; Mindelo, on the northern island of Sao Vicente, also has a large urban population as shown in this population distribution map

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 95.2% (2021)

electrification - urban areas: 94.8% (2021)

electrification - rural areas: 96.8% (2021)

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 5

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 140,429 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 1,728,152 (2015) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix


Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 91.7% of population

rural: 73.3% of population

total: 85.6% of population

unimproved: urban: 8.3% of population

rural: 26.7% of population

total: 14.4% of population (2020 est.)

Ethnic groups

Creole (Mulatto) 71%, African 28%, European 1%


Roman Catholic 72.5%, Protestant 4% (includes Adventist 1.9%, Nazarene 1.8%, Assembly of God 0.2%, God is Love 0.1%), Christian Rationalism 1.7%, Muslim 1.3%, Jehovah's Witness 1.2%, Church of Jesus Christ 1%, other Christian 1.3%, other 1.2%, none 15.6%, no response 0.4% (2021 est.)


Portuguese (official), Crioulo (a Portuguese-based Creole language with two main dialects spoken in Cabo Verde and in the Cabo Verdean diaspora worldwide)

Imports - partners

Portugal 36%, Netherlands 16%, Spain 11%, China 6% (2019)

Disputes - international

none identified


highest point: Mt. Fogo (a volcano on Fogo Island) 2,829 m

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

Contraceptive prevalence rate

55.8% (2018)

Current health expenditure

6% of GDP (2020)

Military and security service personnel strengths

the military has approximately 1,000-1,200 personnel (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the FACV has a limited amount of mostly dated and second-hand equipment, largely from China, some European countries, and the former Soviet Union (2023)

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: B- (2020)

Standard & Poors rating: B (2013)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 1.6 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 400,000 cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 30 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 132,555 tons (2012 est.)

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 31.08 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 0.54 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 0.13 megatons (2020 est.)

Military - note

the FACV/National Guard is mostly a ground force with approximately two infantry battalions and a small air component with a maritime patrol squadron; the Coast Guard had a few coastal patrol craft and patrol boats (2023)

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 1 (cultural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Cidade Velha; Historic Center of Ribeira Grande


production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 80.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 17.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)


total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 6,500 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

1.04 (2023 est.)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

46.9% (2023 est.)


14.07% of GDP (2022 est.)
15.74% of GDP (2021 est.)
12.85% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities

Labor force

252,000 (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 34.3% (2021 est.)

male: 29.9%

female: 40.7%

Net migration rate

-0.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Median age

total: 28.3 years (2023 est.)

male: 27.5 years

female: 29.2 years

Debt - external

$1.713 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.688 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

42 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$704.63 million (2022 est.)
$769.65 million (2021 est.)
$735.085 million (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

Refined petroleum products - imports

5,607 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Public debt

125.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
127.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

Total fertility rate

2.11 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Military expenditures

0.5% of GDP (2022 est.)
0.5% of GDP (2021 est.)
0.5% of GDP (2020 est.)
0.5% of GDP (2019 est.)
0.5% of GDP (2018 est.)

Unemployment rate

12.44% (2022 est.)
14.09% (2021 est.)
14.59% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment


603,901 (2023 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Internet users

total: 413,000 (2021 est.)

percent of population: 70% (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

1.002 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 1.002 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)


total: 4,033 sq km

land: 4,033 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Taxes and other revenues

17.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$4.377 billion (2022 est.)
$3.737 billion (2021 est.)
$3.539 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars


total: 1,350 km

paved: 932 km

unpaved: 418 km (2013)


10 (2024)

Infant mortality rate

total: 23 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 27 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 18.8 deaths/1,000 live births

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 590,171 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 100 (2021 est.)

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

42.4 (2015 est.)

note: index (0-100) of income distribution; higher values represent greater inequality

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

7.93% (2022 est.)
1.86% (2021 est.)
0.61% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

Refined petroleum products - exports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Current account balance

-$68.589 million (2022 est.)
-$249.511 million (2021 est.)
-$285.681 million (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

Real GDP per capita

$7,400 (2022 est.)
$6,400 (2021 est.)
$6,100 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 24,839 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 5 (2020 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 11.4% (2020 est.)

male: 17.3% (2020 est.)

female: 5.4% (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

11.8% (2016)

Energy consumption per capita

26.539 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Death rate

5.8 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Birth rate

18.2 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)


installed generating capacity: 205,000 kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 436.854 million kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

imports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 32.146 million kWh (2019 est.)

Merchant marine

total: 44 (2023)

by type: general cargo 14, oil tanker 2, other 28

Children under the age of 5 years underweight



$1.301 billion (2022 est.)
$1.117 billion (2021 est.)
$1.008 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars


$855.067 million (2022 est.)
$465.348 million (2021 est.)
$423.252 million (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 57,020 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 9 (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 4.7 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 2.28 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 1.82 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.6 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 74 years (2023 est.)

male: 71.7 years

female: 76.4 years

Real GDP growth rate

17.12% (2022 est.)
5.62% (2021 est.)
-20.81% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

Industrial production growth rate

7.55% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 8.9% (2017 est.)

industry: 17.5% (2017 est.)

services: 73.7% (2017 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

0.38% of GDP (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Education expenditures

7.6% of GDP (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

1.19% (2023 est.)