Bahrain - BH - BHR - BHR - Middle East

Last updated: April 12, 2024
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Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Steven C. BONDY (since 9 February 2022)

embassy: Building 979, Road 3119 (next to Al-Ahli Sports Club), Block 331, Zinj District, P.O. Box 26431, Manama

mailing address: 6210 Manama Place, Washington DC  20521-6210

telephone: [973] 17-242700

FAX: [973] 17-272594

email address and website:

Age structure

0-14 years: 18.14% (male 142,866/female 139,083)

15-64 years: 77.83% (male 759,539/female 449,848)

65 years and over: 4.03% (2023 est.) (male 32,162/female 30,388)
2023 population pyramid
This is the population pyramid for Bahrain. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Geographic coordinates

26 00 N, 50 33 E

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.69 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.06 male(s)/female

total population: 1.51 male(s)/female (2023 est.)


8 (2024)

Natural hazards

periodic droughts; dust storms

Area - comparative

3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Area comparison map

3.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for voluntary military service; 15 years of age for non-commissioned officers, technicians, and cadets; no conscription (2022)

note: the BDF hires foreign nationals, Sunni Muslims primarily from Arabic countries and Pakistan, to serve under contract; as of 2020, foreigners were estimated to comprise as much as 80% of the military; the policy has become a controversial issue with the primarily Shia population; during the 2011, the BDF reportedly deployed mostly foreign personnel against protesters


In 1783, the Sunni AL-KHALIFA family took power in Bahrain. In order to secure these holdings, it entered into a series of treaties with the UK during the 19th century that made Bahrain a British protectorate. The archipelago attained its independence in 1971. A steady decline in oil production and reserves since 1970 prompted Bahrain to take steps to diversify its economy, in the process developing petroleum processing and refining, aluminum production, and hospitality and retail sectors. It has also endeavored to become a leading regional banking center, especially with respect to Islamic finance. Bahrain's small size, central location among Gulf countries, economic dependence on Saudi Arabia, and proximity to Iran require it to play a delicate balancing act in foreign affairs among its larger neighbors. Its foreign policy activities usually fall in line with Saudi Arabia and the UAE. In 2022, the United States designated Bahrain as a major non-NATO ally.

The Sunni royal family has long struggled to manage relations with its Shia-majority population. In 2011, amid Arab uprisings elsewhere in the region, the Bahraini Government responded to similar pro-democracy and reform protests at home with police and military action, including deploying Gulf Cooperation Council security forces. Ongoing dissatisfaction with the political status quo continues to factor into sporadic clashes between demonstrators and security forces. In 2020, Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates signed the US-brokered Abraham Accords with Israel. In 2023, Bahrain and the United States signed the Comprehensive Security Integration and Prosperity Agreement to enhance cooperation across a wide range of areas, from defense and security to emerging technology, trade, and investment.



Environment - current issues

desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable land, periods of drought, and dust storms; coastal degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers, oil refineries, and distribution stations; lack of freshwater resources (groundwater and seawater are the only sources for all water needs); lowered water table leaves aquifers vulnerable to saline contamination; desalinization provides some 90% of the country's freshwater

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Population below poverty line


Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: NA

highest 10%: NA

Exports - commodities

refined petroleum, aluminum, iron ore and reductions, aluminum wiring, crude petroleum (2021)

Exports - partners

United Arab Emirates 17%, Saudi Arabia 16%, United States 7%, Japan 7%, India 4% (2021)

Administrative divisions

4 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Asimah (Capital), Janubiyah (Southern), Muharraq, Shamaliyah (Northern)

note: each governorate administered by an appointed governor

Agricultural products

mutton, dates, milk, poultry, tomatoes, fruit, sheep offals, sheep skins, eggs, pumpkins

Military and security forces

Bahrain Defense Force (BDF): Royal Bahraini Army (includes the Royal Guard), Royal Bahraini Navy, Royal Bahraini Air Force

Ministry of Interior: National Guard, Special Security Forces Command (SSFC), Coast Guard

note 1: the Royal Guard is officially under the command of the Army, but exercises considerable autonomy 

note 2: the Ministry of Interior is responsible for internal security and oversees police and specialized security units responsible for maintaining internal order; the National Guard's primary mission is to guard critical infrastructure such as the airport and oil fields and is a back-up to the police; the Guard is under the Ministry of Interior but reports directly to the king


revenues: $9.168 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $12.63 billion (2019 est.)


name: Manama

geographic coordinates: 26 14 N, 50 34 E

time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: name derives from the Arabic "al-manama" meaning "place of rest" or "place of dreams"

Imports - commodities

iron ore, jewelry, cars, floating platforms, refined petroleum, gold, broadcasting equipment (2021)


arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers


161 km


history: adopted 14 February 2002

amendments: proposed by the king or by at least 15 members of either chamber of the National Assembly followed by submission to an Assembly committee for review and, if approved, submitted to the government for restatement as drafts; passage requires a two-thirds majority vote by the membership of both chambers and validation by the king; constitutional articles on the state religion (Islam), state language (Arabic), and the monarchy and "inherited rule" cannot be amended; amended 2012, 2017

Exchange rates

Bahraini dinars (BHD) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
0.376 (2022 est.)
0.376 (2021 est.)
0.376 (2020 est.)
0.376 (2019 est.)
0.376 (2018 est.)

Executive branch

chief of state: King HAMAD bin Isa Al-Khalifa (since 6 March 1999); Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad Al-Khalifa (born 21 October 1969)

head of government: Prime Minister Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad Al-Khalifa (since 11 November 2020); Deputy Prime Minister KHALID bin Abdallah Al Khalifa (since May 2011)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch

Fiscal year

calendar year

Flag description

red, the traditional color for flags of Persian Gulf states, with a white serrated band (five white points) on the hoist side; the five points represent the five pillars of Islam

note: until 2002, the flag had eight white points, but this was reduced to five to avoid confusion with the Qatari flag


15 August 1971 (from the UK)


petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, iron pelletization, fertilizers, Islamic and offshore banking, insurance, ship repairing, tourism

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Court of Cassation (consists of the chairman and 3 judges); Supreme Court of Appeal (consists of the chairman and 3 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the president and 6 members); High Sharia Court of Appeal (court sittings include the president and at least one judge)

judge selection and term of office: Court of Cassation judges appointed by royal decree and serve for a specified tenure; Constitutional Court president and members appointed by the Higher Judicial Council, a body chaired by the monarch and includes judges from the Court of Cassation, sharia law courts, and Civil High Courts of Appeal; members serve 9-year terms; High Sharia Court of Appeal member appointments by royal decree for a specified tenure

subordinate courts: Civil High Courts of Appeal; middle and lower civil courts; High Sharia Court of Appeal; Senior Sharia Court; Administrative Courts of Appeal; military courts

note: the judiciary of Bahrain is divided into civil law courts and sharia law courts; sharia courts (involving personal status and family law) are further divided into Sunni Muslim and Shia Muslim; the Courts are supervised by the Supreme Judicial Council.

Land boundaries

total: 0 km

Land use

agricultural land: 11.3% (2018 est.)

arable land: 2.1% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 3.9% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 5.3% (2018 est.)

forest: 0.7% (2018 est.)

other: 88% (2018 est.)

Legal system

mixed legal system of Islamic (sharia) law, English common law, Egyptian civil, criminal, and commercial codes; customary law

Legislative branch

description: bicameral National Assembly consists of:
Consultative Council or Majlis al-Shura (40 seats; members appointed by the king)
Council of Representatives or Majlis al-Nuwab (40 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 4-year renewable terms)

Consultative Council - last appointments on 30 November 2022 (next appointments in 2026)
Council of Representatives - first round for 6 members held on 12 November 2022; second round for remaining 34 members held on 19 November 2022 (next to be held in November 2026)

election results:
Consultative Council - all members appointed; composition as of February 2024 - men 30, women 10, percentage women 25%

Council of Representatives - percent of vote by society - NA; seats by society - NA; composition as of February 2024 - men 32, women 8, percentage women 20%; note - total National Assembly percentage women 23%


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97.5%

male: 99.9%

female: 94.9% (2018)

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

continental shelf: extending to boundaries to be determined

International organization participation


National holiday

National Day, 16 December (1971); note - 15 August 1971 was the date of independence from the UK, 16 December 1971 was the date of independence from British protection


noun: Bahraini(s)

adjective: Bahraini

Natural resources

oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish, pearls

Geography - note

close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic location in Persian Gulf, through which much of the Western world's petroleum must transit to reach open ocean

Economic overview

growing, economically diverse Middle Eastern island economy; major recovery and balancing efforts to fulfill Economic Vision 2030; regional finance hub; increasing openness; high youth unemployment; water scarcity amid reservoir depletion


20 km gas, 54 km oil (2013)

Political parties and leaders

note: political parties are prohibited, but political societies were legalized under a July 2005 law

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Mina' Salman, Sitrah


20 years of age; universal

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Bahrain continues to develop its telecoms sector in a bid to develop its long-term Economic Vision 2030 strategy; this is a multi-faceted strategy aimed at developing a digital transformation across numerous sectors, including e-government, e-health, e-commerce, and e-banking; 5G services have become widely available since they were launched in 2020; Bahrain’s telecom sector by the Fourth National Telecommunications Plan (initiated in 2016) which focuses on fiber optic infrastructure deployment and establishing affordable prices for high-speed access (2022)

domestic: approximately 18 per 100 fixed-line and 131 per 100 mobile-cellular; modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network with rapidly expanding mobile-cellular telephones (2021)

international: country code - 973; Bahrain’s Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (TRA) has made part of the C-band spectrum available for 5G private networks, in line with the goals outlined in its Workplan for the 2022-23 period (2023)


mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment

Government type

constitutional monarchy

Country name

conventional long form: Kingdom of Bahrain

conventional short form: Bahrain

local long form: Mamlakat al Bahrayn

local short form: Al Bahrayn

former: Dilmun, Tylos, Awal, Mishmahig, Bahrayn, State of Bahrain

etymology: the name means "the two seas" in Arabic and refers to the water bodies surrounding the archipelago


Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia

Map references

Middle East

Irrigated land

40 sq km (2012)

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Abdulla bin Rashed AL KHALIFA (since 21 July 2017)

chancery: 3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 342-1111

FAX: [1] (202) 362-2192

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: New York

Internet country code


GDP (official exchange rate)

$44.383 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: B+ (2020)

Moody's rating: B2 (2018)

Standard & Poors rating: B+ (2017)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

Total renewable water resources

120 million cubic meters (2020 est.)


urban population: 89.9% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 1.99% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Broadcast media

state-run Bahrain Radio and Television Corporation (BRTC) operates 5 terrestrial TV networks and several radio stations; satellite TV systems provide access to international broadcasts; 1 private FM station directs broadcasts to Indian listeners; radio and TV broadcasts from countries in the region are available (2019)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

National anthem

name: "Bahrainona" (Our Bahrain)

lyrics/music: unknown

note: adopted 1971; although Mohamed Sudqi AYYASH wrote the original lyrics, they were changed in 2002 following the transformation of Bahrain from an emirate to a kingdom
This is an audio of the National Anthem for Bahrain. The national anthem is generally a patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.

Major urban areas - population

709,000 MANAMA (capital) (2023)

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Physicians density

0.93 physicians/1,000 population (2015)

Hospital bed density

1.7 beds/1,000 population (2017)

National symbol(s)

a red field surmounted by a white serrated band with five white points; national colors: red, white

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 45.8% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 15.5% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 26.1% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.4% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 80.2% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -67.9% (2017 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 31.3

youth dependency ratio: 26.8

elderly dependency ratio: 4.6

potential support ratio: 21.8 (2021 est.)


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Bahrain

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 25 years; 15 years for Arab nationals

Population distribution

smallest population of the Gulf States, but urbanization rate exceeds 90%; largest settlement concentration is found on the far northern end of the island in and around Manamah and Al Muharraq

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 6 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 42

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 5,877,003 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 420.98 million (2018) mt-km

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix


Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Ethnic groups

Bahraini 47.4%, Asian 43.4%, other Arab 4.9%, African 1.4%, North American 1.1%, Gulf Co-operative countries 0.9%, European 0.8%, other 0.1% (2020 est.)


Muslim 74.2%, other (includes Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Baha'i) 25.8% (2020 est.)


Arabic (official), English, Farsi, Urdu

major-language sample(s):
كتاب حقائق العالم، المصدر الذي لا يمكن الاستغناء عنه للمعلومات الأساسية (Arabic)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.
Arabic audio sample

Imports - partners

United Arab Emirates 24%, Saudi Arabia 15%, Brazil 12%, China 9%, India 6% (2021)

Disputes - international

none identified

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 16 years

male: 16 years

female: 17 years (2019)


highest point: Jabal ad Dukhan 135 m

lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m

Contraceptive prevalence rate


Current health expenditure

4.2% of GDP (2020)

Military - note

the BDF is a small, but well-equipped military focused on territorial defense and support to internal security; its primary concern is Iran, both the conventional military threat and its support to regional terrorist groups; the BDF participates in multinational exercises and has conducted small deployments outside of the country; in 2015, for example, Bahrain joined the Saudi Arabia-led military intervention in Yemen, supplying a few hundred troops and combat aircraft; the Army’s primary combat units are an armored brigade and a mechanized brigade, plus battalions of royal guards and special forces; in a conflict, the Army would be supported by the paramilitary National Guard; the Navy’s principal warships are a US-provided secondhand frigate, two corvettes acquired from Germany, and a secondhand British offshore patrol vessel; the Air Force has small numbers of US-made combat aircraft and attack helicopters

Bahrain’s closest security partners are the US and Saudi Arabia; it hosts the US Naval Forces Central Command (USNAVCENT; established 1983), which includes the US 5th Fleet, several subordinate naval task forces, and the Combined Maritime Forces (established 2002), a coalition of more than 30 nations providing maritime security for regional shipping lanes; in 2003, the US granted Bahrain Major Non-NATO Ally status, a designation under US law that provides foreign partners with certain benefits in the areas of defense trade and security cooperation; Bahraini leaders have said that the security of Bahrain and Saudi Arabia are “indivisible”; Saudi Arabia sent forces to Bahrain to assist with internal security following the 2011 uprising; Bahrain also has close security ties to other Gulf Cooperation Council  countries, particularly Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates, as well as the UK (2023)

Military and security service personnel strengths

information varies; approximately 10,000 active personnel (7,500 Army; 1,000 Navy; 1,500 Air Force); approximately 3,000 National Guard (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the military's inventory consists of a mix of equipment acquired from a wide variety of suppliers; in recent years, the US has been the leading supplier of arms to Bahrain (2023)

Terrorist group(s)

Terrorist group(s): al-Ashtar Brigades; Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps/Qods Force

note 1: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

note 2: in addition to the al-Ashtar Brigades and the IRGC/Qods Force, Saraya al-Mukhtar (aka The Mukhtar Brigade) is an Iran-backed terrorist organization based in Bahrain, reportedly receiving financial and logistic support from the IRGC; Saraya al-Mukhtar's self-described goal is to depose the Bahraini Government with the intention of paving the way for Iran to exert greater influence in Bahrain; the group was designated by the US as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist in Dec 2020

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 280 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 10 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 140 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 951,943 tons (2016 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 76,155 tons (2012 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 8% (2012 est.)

Average household expenditures

on food: 13.2% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 0.4% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 51.82 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 31.69 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 15.47 megatons (2020 est.)

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 3 (all cultural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Dilmun Burial Mounds; Qal'at al-Bahrain – Ancient Harbor and Capital of Dilmun; Bahrain Pearling Path

Major aquifers

Arabian Aquifer System


production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Natural gas

production: 18,271,840,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

consumption: 18,251,140,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 81.382 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)


total petroleum production: 185,300 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 73,200 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 228,800 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 186.5 million barrels (2021 est.)

Gross reproduction rate

0.82 (2023 est.)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

43.8% (2023 est.)

Space program overview

space program in nascent stages and is focused on developing the capabilities to build and operate satellites; the NSSA’s mission includes promoting space science, technology, and research, building capacity in the fields of satellite manufacturing, tracking, control, data processing and analysis, and remote sensing, developing space-related programs and space policy, and facilitating international cooperation; cooperates with a variety of foreign agencies and commercial entities, including those of India, Italy, Japan, Saudi Arabia, the UK, and the UAE; also a member of the Arab Space Coordination Group, established by the UAE in 2019 (2023)

note: further details about the key activities, programs, and milestones of the country’s space program, as well as government spending estimates on the space sector, appear in Appendix S

Space agency/agencies

Bahrain National Space Science Agency (NSSA; established 2014) (2023)

Labor force

844,000 (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 9.9% (2021 est.)

male: 6.1%

female: 20.5%

Net migration rate

-1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Median age

total: 33.3 years (2023 est.)

male: 34.6 years

female: 31 years

Debt - external

$52.15 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$42.55 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

16 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$4.775 billion (2022 est.)
$4.993 billion (2021 est.)
$2.523 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

Refined petroleum products - imports

14,530 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Public debt

88.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
81.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.66 children born/woman (2023 est.)

Military expenditures

3.2% of GDP (2022 est.)
3.6% of GDP (2021 est.)
4.2% of GDP (2020 est.)
4% of GDP (2019 est.)
4% of GDP (2018 est.)

Unemployment rate

1.34% (2022 est.)
1.55% (2021 est.)
1.79% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment


1,553,886 (2023 est.)

note: immigrants make up approximately 45% of the total population, according to UN data (2019)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-10.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Internet users

total: 1.5 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 100% (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

43.112 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 7.308 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 35.804 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)


total: 760 sq km

land: 760 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Taxes and other revenues

16.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$76.342 billion (2022 est.)
$72.803 billion (2021 est.)
$70.91 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars


total: 4,122 km

paved: 3,392 km

unpaved: 730 km (2010)


3 (2024)

Infant mortality rate

total: 10 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 11.7 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 8.3 deaths/1,000 live births

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 1,923,443 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 131 (2021 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

3.63% (2022 est.)
-0.61% (2021 est.)
-2.32% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

Refined petroleum products - exports

245,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Current account balance

$6.839 billion (2022 est.)
$2.602 billion (2021 est.)
-$3.245 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

Real GDP per capita

$51,900 (2022 est.)
$49,800 (2021 est.)
$48,000 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 148,928 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 9 (2020 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 14.9% (2020 est.)

male: 25.3% (2020 est.)

female: 4.5% (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

29.8% (2016)

Energy consumption per capita

547.976 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

Death rate

2.8 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Birth rate

12.3 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)


installed generating capacity: 6.982 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 31,038,250,000 kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 447 million kWh (2019 est.)

imports: 652 million kWh (2019 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 611 million kWh (2019 est.)

Merchant marine

total: 184 (2023)

by type: general cargo 12, oil tanker 3, other 169

Children under the age of 5 years underweight



$33.066 billion (2022 est.)
$27.996 billion (2021 est.)
$23.728 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars


$44.58 billion (2022 est.)
$35.653 billion (2021 est.)
$25.68 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 253,431 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 18 (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

274,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 1.18 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 0.4 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.11 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.66 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.01 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 80.1 years (2023 est.)

male: 77.9 years

female: 82.5 years

Real GDP growth rate

4.86% (2022 est.)
2.67% (2021 est.)
-4.64% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

Industrial production growth rate

1.21% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 0.3% (2017 est.)

industry: 39.3% (2017 est.)

services: 60.4% (2017 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

Education expenditures

2.2% of GDP (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

0.85% (2023 est.)