Anguilla - AI - AIA - Central America and the Caribbean

Last updated: April 11, 2024
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Anguilla Factbook Data

Dependency status

overseas territory of the UK

Diplomatic representation from the US

embassy: none (overseas territory of the UK); alternate contact is the US Embassy in Barbados [1] (246) 227-4000

Age structure

0-14 years: 21% (male 2,034/female 1,972)

15-64 years: 67.88% (male 5,896/female 7,055)

65 years and over: 11.12% (2023 est.) (male 1,037/female 1,085)
2023 population pyramid
This is the population pyramid for Anguilla. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.

For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Geographic coordinates

18 15 N, 63 10 W

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.84 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female

total population: 0.89 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Natural hazards

frequent hurricanes and other tropical storms (July to October)

Area - comparative

about one-half the size of Washington, DC


English settlers from Saint Kitts first colonized Anguilla in 1650. Great Britain administered the island until the early 19th century, when -- against the wishes of the inhabitants -- Anguilla was incorporated into a single British dependency along with Saint Kitts and Nevis. Several attempts at separation failed. In 1971, two years after a revolt, Anguilla was finally allowed to secede; this arrangement was formally recognized in 1980, when Anguilla became a separate British dependency. In 2017, Hurricane Irma caused extensive damage on the island, particularly to communications and residential and business infrastructure.

Environment - current issues

supplies of potable water sometimes cannot meet increasing demand largely because of poor distribution system

Population below poverty line

23% (2002 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: NA

highest 10%: NA

Exports - commodities

packaged medicines, vaccines and cultures, used clothing, orthopedic appliances, blank audio media (2021)

Administrative divisions

none (overseas territory of the UK)

Agricultural products

small quantities of tobacco, vegetables; cattle raising


revenues: $81.92 million (2017 est.)

expenditures: $80.32 million (2017 est.)


name: The Valley

geographic coordinates: 18 13 N, 63 03 W

time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: name derives from the capital's location between several hills

Imports - commodities

fuels, foodstuffs, manufactures, chemicals, trucks, textiles


tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds


61 km


history: several previous; latest 1 April 1982

amendments: amended 1990, 2012, 2017, 2019

Exchange rates

East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
2.7 (2017 est.)
2.7 (2016 est.)
2.7 (2015 est.)
2.7 (2014 est.)
2.7 (2013 est.)

Executive branch

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor Julia CROUCH
(since 11 September 2023)

head of government: Premier Dr. Ellis WEBSTER (since 30 June 2020); note - starting in 2019, the title of head of government was changed to premier from Chief Minister of Anguilla

cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from among elected members of the House of Assembly

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed premier by the governor

Fiscal year

1 April - 31 March

Flag description

blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Anguillan coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms depicts three orange dolphins in an interlocking circular design on a white background with a turquoise-blue field below; the white in the background represents peace; the blue base symbolizes the surrounding sea, as well as faith, youth, and hope; the three dolphins stand for endurance, unity, and strength

Illicit drugs

transshipment point for South American narcotics destined for the US and Europe


none (overseas territory of the UK)


tourism, boat building, offshore financial services

Judicial branch

highest court(s): the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (ECSC) is the superior court of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States; the ECSC - headquartered on St. Lucia - consists of the Court of Appeal - headed by the chief justice and 4 judges - and the High Court with 18 judges; the Court of Appeal is itinerant, travelling to member states on a schedule to hear appeals from the High Court and subordinate courts; High Court judges reside in the member states, though none on Anguilla

judge selection and term of office: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court chief justice appointed by Her Majesty, Queen ELIZABETH II; other justices and judges appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission; Court of Appeal justices appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 65; High Court judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 62

subordinate courts: Magistrate's Court; Juvenile Court

Land boundaries

total: 0 km

Land use

agricultural land: 0% (2018 est.)

arable land: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0% (2018 est.)

forest: 61.1% (2018 est.)

other: 38.9% (2018 est.)

Legal system

common law based on the English model

Legislative branch

description: unicameral House of Assembly (11 seats; 7 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 2 appointed by the governor, and 2 ex officio members - the attorney general and deputy governor; members serve five-year terms)

elections: last held on 29 June 2020 (next to be held in 2025)

election results:
percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - APM 7, AUF 4; composition - men 8, women 3, percentage women 27.3%

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm

International organization participation

Caricom (associate), CDB, Interpol (subbureau), OECS, UNESCO (associate), UPU

National holiday

Anguilla Day, 30 May (1967)


noun: Anguillan(s)

adjective: Anguillan

Natural resources

salt, fish, lobster

Geography - note

the most northerly of the Leeward Islands in the Lesser Antilles

Economic overview

small, tourism-dependent, territorial-island economy; very high public debt; COVID-19 crippled economic activity; partial recovery underway via tourism, benefitting from its high amount of timeshare residences; considering reopening oil refinery

Political parties and leaders

Anguilla Progressive Movement or APM [Dr. Ellis WEBSTER]; (formerly Anguilla United Movement or AUM)
Anguilla United Front or AUF [Cora RICHARDSON-HODGE]

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Blowing Point, Road Bay


18 years of age; universal

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: in the telecom sector, with declines seen in subscriber numbers (particularly for prepaid mobile services — the mainstay of short-term visitors) and revenue; fixed and mobile broadband services are two areas that have benefited from the crisis to a small extent as employees and students have resorted to working from home, but their contribution to the sector has been insufficient to offset steep falls in other areas of the market; one area of the telecom market that does not yet appear poised for growth is 5G mobile; governments, regulators, and even the mobile network operators have shown that they have little appetite for investing in 5G opportunities at the present time; network expansion and enhancements remain concentrated around improving LTE coverage; until the economies and markets stabilize, and overseas visitors return there is unlikely to be much momentum towards implementing 5G capabilities anywhere in the region (2021)

domestic: fixed-line teledensity is about 38 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is roughly 170 per 100 persons (2021)

international: country code - 1-264; landing points for the SSCS, ECFS, GCN and Southern Caribbean Fiber with submarine cable links to Caribbean islands and to the US; microwave radio relay to island of Saint Martin/Sint Maarten (2019)


flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone

Government type

parliamentary democracy (House of Assembly); self-governing overseas territory of the UK

Military - note

defense is the responsibility of the UK

Country name

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Anguilla

etymology: the name Anguilla means "eel" in various Romance languages (Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, French) and likely derives from the island's lengthy shape


Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, east of Puerto Rico

Map references

Central America and the Caribbean

Irrigated land

0 sq km (2020)

Diplomatic representation in the US

none (overseas territory of the UK)

Internet country code



urban population: 100% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.47% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Broadcast media

1 private TV station; multi-channel cable TV subscription services are available; about 10 radio stations, one of which is government-owned

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 97.5% of population

total: 97.5% of population

unimproved: urban: 2.5% of population

total: 2.5% of population (2017 est.)

National anthem

name: "God Bless Anguilla"

lyrics/music: Alex RICHARDSON

note: local anthem adopted 1981; as an overseas territory of the United Kingdom, "God Save the King" is official (see United Kingdom)

Major urban areas - population

1,000 THE VALLEY (capital) (2018)

National symbol(s)


GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 74.1% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 18.3% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 26.8% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 48.2% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -67.4% (2017 est.)


see United Kingdom

Population distribution

most of the population is concentrated in The Valley in the center of the island; settlmement is fairly uniform in the southwest, but rather sparce in the northeast

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 4

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix


Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 99.1% of population

total: 99.1% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.9% of population

total: 0.9% of population (2017 est.)

Ethnic groups

African/Black 85.3%, Hispanic 4.9%, mixed 3.8%, White 3.2%, East Indian/Indian 1%, other 1.6%, unspecified 0.3% (2011 est.)

note: data represent population by ethnic origin


Protestant 73.2% (includes Anglican 22.7%, Methodist 19.4%, Pentecostal 10.5%, Seventh Day Adventist 8.3%, Baptist 7.1%, Church of God 4.9%, Presbyterian 0.2%, Brethren 0.1%), Roman Catholic 6.8%, Jehovah's Witness 1.1%, other Christian 10.9%, other 3.2%, unspecified 0.3%, none 4.5% (2011 est.)


English (official)

Disputes - international

none identified


total population: NA

male: NA

female: NA


highest point: Crocus Hill 73 m

lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

Physicians density


Contraceptive prevalence rate


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Current health expenditure


Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 38.6

youth dependency ratio: 24.4

elderly dependency ratio: 14.1

potential support ratio: 7.1 (2021)

Gross reproduction rate

0.85 (2023 est.)

Currently married women (ages 15-49)

46.1% (2023 est.)

Net migration rate

10.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Median age

total: 36.8 years (2023 est.)

male: 34.6 years

female: 38.6 years

Debt - external

$41.04 million (31 December 2013)
$8.8 million (1998)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$76.38 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$48.14 million (31 December 2015 est.)

Public debt

20.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
20.8% of GDP (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.72 children born/woman (2023 est.)


19,079 (2023 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

0.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

Internet users

total: 13,056 (2021 est.)

percent of population: 81.6% (2021 est.)


total: 91 sq km

land: 91 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Taxes and other revenues

46.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)


total: 175 km

paved: 82 km

unpaved: 93 km (2004)


1 (2024)

Infant mortality rate

total: 3 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 3.9 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 2.1 deaths/1,000 live births

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 26,000 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 170 (2021 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

1.3% (2017 est.)
-0.6% (2016 est.)

Current account balance

-$23.2 million (2017 est.)
-$25.3 million (2016 est.)

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 5,000 (2018 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 35 (2018 est.)

Death rate

4.7 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Birth rate

11.9 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

Merchant marine

total: 2 (2023)

by type: other 2

Children under the age of 5 years underweight



$186.2 million (2017 est.)
$170.1 million (2016 est.)


$7.9 million (2017 est.)
$3.9 million (2016 est.)

note: Data are in current year dollars and do not include illicit exports or re-exports.

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 6,000 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 38 (2021 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 82.4 years (2023 est.)

male: 79.8 years

female: 85.1 years

Industrial production growth rate

4% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 3% (2017 est.)

industry: 10.5% (2017 est.)

services: 86.4% (2017 est.)

Education expenditures

4% of GDP (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

1.77% (2023 est.)